Radar Analysis Program


GENERAL


RAP primarily assists controllers in the control and scoring of ANG aircraft range missions in the Volk area. The aircraft control procedures and requirements used by RAP are basically consistent with the control procedures and requirements used to support other aircraft control missions at other C2 facilities.


Worldwide, aircraft are equipped with electronic equipment (transponders) transmitting specific data – identification and status - related to itself. Specific equipment at radar facilities “reads” and/or decodes the data transmitted by the aircraft. If the aircraft has no transponders (or off), the radars receive only a “raw” radar return from the aircraft with no amplifying data other than performance data (speed, heading and altitude) that the radar calculates.


Aircraft controllers at the radar facilities have equipment (radar “scopes”) to enable them to observe all aircraft in their AOR and within the capabilities of the radar(s) itself. This includes the area that is covered by their radars (assigned or located with their C2 facility) plus, other radar data received from other radars and integrated with the sites’ air “picture”.


Each radar controller/operator in radar operations may manipulate the air picture presented on a particular radar screen (scope) to provide maximum support to their surveillance and aircraft control missions. Such “manipulation” primarily consists of three types: overlays, filters and control tools.


Overlays: An aircraft Controller may activate/deactivate a variety of overlays to assist (clarify, amplify) in performing his aircraft control tasks. RAP/FORCES provides the following overlay categories:

Areas/Boundaries (e.g. Warning Areas, Ranges, ADIZ)

Lat/Long (Geographical)

Specific Sites (e.g. Cities, Airports, Airbases, Navigation Aids)

Environmental (Weather) – when available

Filters: Allows the Controller to display or filter specific data displayed on the radar screen. RAP/FORCES provides the following such filters:

Range (designates distances and markers observed from specified locations)

Azimuth (designates area observed based on azimuth for specified locations)

Area (limits the area observed)

Altitude (limits observed aircraft radar “returns” based on altitude status)

Transponder Modes/Codes (limits the radar “returns” to those transmitting specified modes/codes)


Aircraft Surveillance/Control Tools: Assists Controllers in more easily, accurately or effectively controlling aircraft. RAP/FORCES provides the following such Aircraft Control Tools:

Range Markers

Azimuth Markers (e.g. Compass)

Altitude Indicators (e.g. Sticks)

Speed/Heading Indicators

Labeling (on specified elements)

Coloring (e.g. Surveillance (radar) site and aircraft surveyed)

Clock


Summary:

RAP/FORCES provides the controller with additional tools to more effectively control and direct real time Range missions.






































RAP CONTROL TASKS:


General:

  1. Identification:

    1. Specific ID of an aircraft: Mode/Code and/or Tail #. This data, in turn, may identify the Call Sign, Type/Model, Base, Unit and at times Pilot.

Determined by (one or combination):

      • Transponder Return/Readout.

      • Pilot report via A/G electronics (Pilot of aircraft or other pilots in contact with specific aircraft).

      • Report from other C2 agencies (AWACS, AC&W, FAA).

    1. Less Specific ID of an aircraft: Call Sign, Type/Model, Base, and Unit.

Determined by (one or combination):

        • Transponder Return/Readout.

        • Pilot report via A/G electronics (Pilot of aircraft or other pilots in contact with specific aircraft).

        • Report from other C2 agencies (AWACS, AC&W, FAA).

        • Location, Flight characteristics (Speed, heading, altitude, flight path or behavior).

    1. General ID of an aircraft – Military/Commercial/Civil, Jet/Prop.

      • Report from other C2 agencies (AWACS, AC&W, FAA).

      • Location, Flight characteristics (Speed, heading, altitude, flight path or behavior.

      • Controller experience and judgment.


  1. Control:

    1. Close Control - Specific Mission Support

Range Sorties

Refuel

A/G - Bombing

A/A – Intercepts

A/A - Gunnery

Recce

SAR

Emergency

    1. Routine Control:

Flight Follow

Vector

Range/Bearing

Position Report

Aircraft Separation

Weather Status

Message Relay




RAP Control Tasks:


  1. ID aircraft.

  2. Vector aircraft.

  3. Provide relative positions (range/bearing/altitude) to other air traffic.

  4. Control (direct) flight parameters of aircraft under control (altitude, heading, speed, turn-rate, ascent/descent rate).

  5. Track fuel and weapon status of aircraft under control.

  6. Ensure flight restrictions in control area are not violated.

Special areas – (e.g. Warning, No-fly)

Flight corridors

Altitude limitations/restrictions

  1. Determine coverage/limitations of other radar sites.

  2. Provide flight warnings and advisories as required.

  3. Provide altimeter and weather status.

  4. Air Emergency assistance.

  5. Relay data to other agencies as required.






























RAP Control Tasks:


  1. ID aircraft.

Several options exist to identify an aircraft. One or a combination of those below can be used for positive identification.

    • Beacon mode/code.

            1. Options/Detection Filters/Beacon. Under Map Overlays/Labels, the Label Beacon must by on.

            2. Options/Track Displays/Specify Ind. Track Params – after track is selected from the map.

    • Identifying radar site that is tracking the aircraft.

              1. Options/Site Filters/Site

              2. If color of site if known, refer to screen.

    • Location - Range/Bearing from a specified point.

                1. Options/Map Overlays/Grid/Range Grids/Re-center Grids/Select center point on Map/Confirm. Produces range markers from which the range from that point to the aircraft can be determined.

                2. Click on Dist. Button (lower screen)/Click on the two locations to get the range.

    • Altitude, speed and heading of the aircraft.

              1. Options/Detection Filters/Beacon. Box indicates altitude, speed and the track has a heading line indicator.

              2. Map Overlays/Speed and Heading Indicator overlay.

              3. Options/Track Displays/Specify Ind. Track Params – after track is selected from the map.

    • Track number.

                1. Options/Detection Filters/Beacon. Assigned track number is indicated in box. Under Map Overlays, the Label Tracks must by on.

                2. Click on track and read the track number from the “Asset Select” form.

                3. Options/Track Displays/Specify Ind. Track Params – after track is selected from the map.

  1. Vector aircraft.

    • Location of aircraft under control.

If known, no other action is required. If unknown, the location of the aircraft must be determined by Beacon mode/code; Range/Bearing from a specified point; altitude, speed and heading of the aircraft; identifying the radar site that is tracking the aircraft; and/or Track number.

    • Bearing to the designated vector point.

1. Click on “DIST arrow” button located on lower portion of screen. Select anchor point and then the pertinent point or object to obtain the bearing and range to that particular point.

2. To obtain a “rough” bearing to several objects/points, select the “Compass” located on lower portion of screen. Then, click on the aircraft to place to the compass overlay over it. An approximate bearing can be read to all objects/locations within the compass overlay.


  1. Provide relative positions (range/bearing/altitude) to other air traffic.

    • Location and altitude of the aircraft under control.

1. The location of the aircraft must be determined by Beacon mode/code; Range/Bearing from a specified point; altitude, speed and heading of the aircraft; identifying the radar site that is tracking the aircraft; and/or Track number.

2. Options/Track Displays/Specify Ind. Track Params/Track Info. And click on the radar/beacon indicator on the map. All relative data on that aircraft will appear on the form (L/L, track number, beacon setting, heading, altitude, speed, color of the track and any amplifying data).

    • Location and bearing of other aircraft in area.

1. The relative location of other air traffic in the control area is presented on the screen (usually via radar “inputs” from radars in the area).

2. When required, flight parameters of specific air traffic may be determined selection of Options/Track Displays/Specify Ind. Track Params/Track Info. And click on the radar/beacon indicator on the map. All relative data on that aircraft will appear on the form (L/L, track number, beacon setting, heading, altitude, speed, color of the track and any amplifying data).

    • Bearing and range to other aircraft.

      1. To obtain the range and bearing of other aircraft in the area, first click on “DIST arrow” button located on lower portion of screen. Then select the aircraft under control and then click on the other aircraft to obtain the bearing and range to it.

      2. Range and bearing from the aircraft under control to other “strangers” are reported to the controlled aircraft (“aircraft at 110 deg, range 45nm”). Often the altitude of the stranger as well as the heading is also reported to the aircraft under positive control (“heading 330 (deg) at angels 30000 (ft)”). If the stranger is crossing the path of the controlled aircraft, this information may also be transmitted (“bearing 330 (deg) crossing left to right). Bearing can be reported as a “clock position” rather than degrees – e.g. “aircraft at eleven o’clock, crossing left to right”.


  1. Control (direct) flight parameters of aircraft under control (altitude, heading, speed, turn-rate, climb/descent rate).

    • Call sign and location of aircraft.

                  1. Call sign may not be found with RAP tools unless it has been manually entered as Amplifying Data on the Track Info. Form. The call sign is usually known from the pre-flight/mission briefing and/or at the time of radio check-in between the controller and pilot.

2. Location: The location of the aircraft must be determined by Beacon mode/code; Range/Bearing from a specified point; altitude, speed and heading of the aircraft; identifying the radar site that is tracking the aircraft; and/or Track number.

If location if unknown, the user selects Options/Track Displays/Specify Ind. Track Params/Track Info. and clicks on the radar/beacon indicator on the map. All relative data on that aircraft will appear on the form (L/L, track number, beacon setting, heading, altitude, speed, color of the track and any amplifying data).

    • Type aircraft and flight parameters. (Outside scope of RAP.)


  1. Track fuel and weapon status of aircraft under control. (Outside scope of RAP.)

    • Informed of fuel status by pilot of aircraft.


  1. Ensure flight restrictions in control area are not violated.

    • Location of control areas.

Map Overlays/Data-Driven Displays/Additional Overlays/Volk/activate specific area overlays. Causes area boundaries to appear on map.

    • Ensure aircraft under control do not violate flight restrictions. Positive control and/or warnings to aircraft are the means to accomplish this.


  1. Flight restriction for the control areas. (The specific restrictions are outside scope of RAP.)

    • Locations and flight data (speed, altitude, heading) of aircraft near control areas.

      1. If location if unknown, the user selects Options/Track Displays/Specify Ind. Track Params/Track Info. and clicks on the radar/beacon indicator on the map. All relative data on that aircraft will appear on the form (L/L, track number, beacon setting, heading, altitude, speed, color of the track and any amplifying data).


  1. Determine coverage/limitations of other radar sites.

    • Location of radar sites.

Map Overlays/Sensor Displays/Sites. Causes radar site icons to appear on the map over the geographical location of the sites.

    • Range and altitude of radar coverage for the sites.

Map Overlays/Sensor Displays/Sites/Coverages. Causes radar site icons to appear on the map over the geographical location of the sites with the radar coverage range overlaid on the site. Specific radar coverage and altitude filters that apply to a particular site and are currently be applied to the RAP screen may be found by Options/Site Filters/the Site/Active Filters/then activation of the Coverage, Altitude, Area.


  1. Provide flight warnings and advisories as required. (Outside scope of RAP.)

    • Requires radio contact with pilots (with known call-signs and radio frequencies).

    • Knowledge of flight warnings and advisories. Received from applicable flight advisory agencies.


  1. Provide altimeter and weather status. (Outside scope of RAP.)

    • Requires radio contact with pilots (with known call-signs and radio frequencies).

    • Knowledge of altimeter and weather status. Received from weather and/or C2 units.


  1. Air Emergency assistance.

    • Communication with pilot. Radio or relay. (Outside scope of RAP.)

    • Type emergency and indicators. Usually reported by pilot with the emergency.

    • Call sign and location of aircraft.

      1. Call sign may not be found with RAP tools unless it has been manually entered as Amplifying Data on the Track Info. Form. The call sign is usually known from the pre-flight/mission briefing and/or at the time of radio check-in between the controller and pilot.

2. Location: The location of the aircraft must be determined by Beacon mode/code; Range/Bearing from a specified point; altitude, speed and heading of the aircraft; identifying the radar site that is tracking the aircraft; and/or Track number.

If location if unknown, the user selects Options/Track Displays/Specify Ind. Track Params/Track Info. and clicks on the radar/beacon indicator on the map. All relative data on that aircraft will appear on the form

    • Current flight characteristics (speed, heading, altitude) of aircraft.

Either reported by the pilot or can be found when user selects Options/Track Displays/Specify Ind. Track Params/Track Info and clicks on the radar/beacon indicator on the map.

    • Current fuel and weapons state. Reported by pilot.

    • Type aircraft and flight parameters of that specific aircraft. (Outside scope of RAP.) Type aircraft can be reported real time by pilot, related to call sign or unit and/or reported in pre-mission briefing.

    • Emergency (bailout) procedures for that specific aircraft. (Outside scope of RAP.) Reference documents/cards.

    • Location/range/bearing and altitude of other aircraft in vicinity.

      1. To obtain the range and bearing of other aircraft in the area, first click on “DIST arrow” button located on lower portion of screen. Then select the aircraft under control and then click on the other aircraft to obtain the bearing and range to it.

      2. Range and bearing from the aircraft under control to other “strangers” are reported to the controlled aircraft (“aircraft at 110 deg, range 45nm”). Often the altitude of the stranger as well as the heading is also reported to the aircraft under positive control (“heading 330 (deg) at angels 30000 (ft)”). If the stranger is crossing the path of the controlled aircraft, this information may also be transmitted (“bearing 330 (deg) crossing left to right). Bearing can be reported as a “clock position” rather than degrees – e.g. “aircraft at eleven o’clock, crossing left to right”.

    • Suitable airfields available for emergency landings. Location of airbases in the area may be determined by:

      1. Options/Map Overlays/Airbases that causes icons of the airbases to appear on the map.

      2. Suitability is determined via applicable reference documents.

    • Restrictions, radio frequencies and control agencies at the bases. Reference to applicable flight manual/ documents.

    • Availability of emergency equipment and capabilities at airfields.

Learned from contact with the appropriate airbase/airfield agencies.

    • Capability to communicate with applicable control, recovery agencies. Required dedicated ground communication with these agencies.

    • Range from emergency aircraft to potential recovery airfield(s). Click on Dist. Button (lower screen). Click on the emergency aircraft and each base to get the range and bearing to that potential emergency landing field.

    • Correlation of range and available fuel. Tabulated by the controller when the fuel state and the distance to recovery base are known.

    • Weather – in control area and at potential recovery airfields. Received from weather or other control agencies.

    • Notification, scramble and control of applicable Rescue elements. Notification of the availability and status of rescue elements is received from pertinent rescue agencies and/or from the elements themselves when they have begun operation or flight.


  1. Relay data to other agencies as required. (Outside scope of RAP.)

    • Capability to contact other agencies.

















First: SET UP RAP SCREEN


Choose Site (e.g. VOK) from Options/Site Filters on Main Menu.

Selection of a site brings up the “SENSOR FILTERS” form with “Filtering Options For Site:”

Choose Color (accept current color displayed or change color).

Select required Active Filters from list.

ON

REAL

TEST

XPNDR - Xponder Filters

BOX - Box Sensor Filter

GEO

TEXT

ALM

Define Box (Latitude/Longitude)

COVERAGE

COVERAGE FILTER

Azimuth

Range

ALTITUDE

ALTITUDE FILTER

SUPPRESSION\nMODE


Select required Detection Filters from list.

Search

Beacon

Search reinforced

Identification of Beacon

Mode 4

Search Mode 4

Beacon 4

SAR

75 – 76 – 77

Map

Strobe

RTQC


Choose Track Display options. Selection causes “Track Display” form – “Universal Track Display Options” – to appear with:

Tracks On

Tracks Box On

Track Labels On

Specify Ind. Track Patterns. Selection causes the “TRACK INFO” form to appear.

ID:

Mode 2:

Mode 3:

Mode C:

Location:

Speed (Kts):

Display Color:

User Amplification 1:

User Amplification 2:

Source Sensor:

Source:

Flash

Select From Map

Change Track Color Mode. Selection causes a drop down menu to appear with:

Color Track By Designation

Color Track By User Specification

Color Track By Sensor

Configure SID Data Display. Selection causes a section of the form to expand with the following data. A single selection may be made for each line.

1 2 3

Nothing x x x

Altitude x x x

Mode2 x x x

Mode3 x x x

ModeC x x x

SID x x x

Designator x x x

Amplification_1 x x x

Amplification_2 x x x

Select Map Overlays.

Select Labels (as required):

Cities

Airbase

Airports

Reinforced Beacons

Beacons

Mode 4 Beacons

7500, 7600, 7700

Mode 4

Tracks


Select Sector (ignore if already in VOK area)


Select additional overlays. In addition to labels, many other overlays may be added to the RAP screen. Any or a combination of the following overlays may be selected from “Other Map Overlays”.

States & Provinces

Warning Areas

Sector Boundaries

Compass

Lat/Long

Weather

City

Airports

Airbases

Terrain Stick

Drop Stick

Speed/Heading Indicator

AMIS

ADIZ

Stop Points

Navigation Aids

Display Clock

System Information:

Grids –

Lat/Long Grids

Range Grids

Distance Grids

Current Color

Change Color

Altitude Separation (ft)

Current Grid Center

Lat/Long” windows

Re-center Grids


Select Data Driven Displays for Area. (e.g. Volk)

Volk - Turn on required displays from list.

Snoopy MOA Boundaries

Fechter MOA Boundaries

ADA MOA Boundaries

Smokey Hill MOA Boundaries

Shirley MOA Boundaries

Razorback MOA Boundaries

Rivers MOA Boundaries

Alpena MOA Boundaries

Wisconsin River

Primary Roads

Lake Winnebego

Hardwood Airstrip

Volk Field Airstrip Hardwood SA-2 Targets

Hardwood SA-6 Targets

Volk ATCAA Boundaries

Hardwood Point Targets

Hardwood Bridge Targets

Hardwood SA-2 Targets

Hardwood SA- 6 Targets


Select SENSOR OVERLAYS

Sites – Displays Radar sites on screen.

Filter – Displays Area selected on map.

Coverage – Activates coverage.


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