Macro Changes

This section of the Mission Planner addresses tools providing aimple mthods for defining broad scenario areas. These tools use rulesets to define significant sections of scenario laydown and element employment based upon scenario objectives. Currently there are three tools used to make large (i.e. Macro) changes to the scenario. They are:

SIOP Planner

Selection brings up the Planner Status Form with the Current Planning Status and the OFFENSE and DEFENSE status for both the RED and BLUE sides. A check mark indicates that the basic planning tasks have been accomplished while a circle with a line thru it indicates there are still areas of planning that are incomplete. Clicking on any one of these four options will bring up a screen designed to aid the user in quickly defining that specific scenario component.

Logically there are two operations in the SIOP planner. The first is to plan the offense, the second the defense. These operations are handled symetrically between the sides, so each will be described only once.

Jump to Defense
Jump to Offense

SIOP Planner - Defense

The SIOP planner provides an immediate interface to defined the air & missile defense(A&MD) employed by either side. Before addressing the interface specifics some time should be taken to describe FORCES A&MD modeling. First, it is important to know that there are two A&MD models in FORCES, one referred to as the standard model and the other as a simplified model. The standard model was originally developed when FORCES framework was first developed to support live, distributed air defense exercises as the Air Defense Initiative Simulation for Command and Control Development (ADISC2). This is a detailed A&MD simulation that discretely models all aspects of air & missile defense, including:

  1. The detection (or non-detection) of specific threats by individual sensors in a realistic environment including weather, solar conditions, and ECM.
  2. The formation and subsequent reporting of tracks from raw detections
  3. Multisensor fusion of detections and tracks.
  4. Track maintenance across multiple C2 sites with forward, back and cross tell.
  5. Engagement asset allocation and assignment.
  6. Maintenance of sensor and engagement asset sites.
  7. Detailed individual acquisition, flyout, and intercept.
  8. Reevaluation and reassignment.

These activities are described in the ADISC2 Programmer's Manuals, in particular in the volumes covering the Sensor, Engagement and C2 modules.

Subsequent use of the FORCES model indicated that often the data required to populate a detailed A&MD model like this are unavailable when evaluating future architectures. It was also found that non-A&MD users had little interest in populating the A&MD model at the detailed level required by this model even when the data was available. Finally, it turned out that experr air defense analysts were required to populate the original model because the command and control procedures that had to be specified were not generally known outside that small community.

For all of these reasons it was decided to build a second, simplified A&MD model that would provide a much lower fidelity representation more appropriate to quick-turn architectural analysis. This A&MD model is the one typically used in NFORCES and the Simplified A&MD Model screen that appears when either the BLUE or RED DEFENSE blocks are clicked is the method to defining the A&MD configuration for both sides in this mode.

When either of the SIOP defense buttons is pushed, the system verifies that the current scenario configuration specification permits the use of the simplified air and missile defense (A&MD) model. If not, the user will be asked if they should automatically be set for him. This sets the scenario options (the same ones that can be accessed in the Mission Planner by going through "Scenario Defn->Scenario Configuration") to be set up for this model. In particular, both the simplified A&MD model and the "simplified Fuel Attrition" model. (Note: the "simplified fuel attrition" model is just a fancy way of saying that aircraft won't fail to get to target just because they run out of fuel; this is used to bypass the tedious need to define tankers with missions and routes for all scenario players).

Again, the purpose to this interface is to provide a simpler model for architecture-level analysis. But the original, detailed models are still available in the NFORCES framework and can be turned on with just a couple of mouse buttons - but be forewarned that without the time and operational knowledge to populate the more detailed models the scenario results could be very disappointing.

Assuming that the user either already has the scenario configured to run the simplified models ot he agrees to let the system reconfigure for their use, the Simplified A&MD Model screen will appear with the current DEFENSE CONFIGURATION FOR BLUE and RED listed. The Simplified A&MD model took simplification seriously. It eliminates the need to define defensive engagement assets discretely. The defense geography is ignored. Instead, the probability of destroying a threat is computed only at the following key events in the threat's attack:

The probabilities of kill in each of these event epochs was determined for the following cases (excluding the trivial cases) against a typical example of an architecture of that type using EADSIM:

A&MD

NMD

None

None

Generic

Generic

Sophisticated

Sophisticated

Advanced


The user now just specifies the defense architecture level for each side on the Simplified A&MD Model screen. Sliders are also provided to adjust the probability of threat kill in each case according to the threat countermeasures and the availability of interceptors. Interpret these sliders as inputting a value ranging from 0 to 1 in the following probability of kill equation:

PK = Pkbase * Prob(Interceptor Available)*(1-Prob)(Theat ECM Worked)

Putting the "# Interceptors" slider to the right results in a probability of interceptor availability of 1. Putting the "CounterMeasures Susceptibility" slider to the left results in a probability that ECM defeated the defense of 0 (Good for the defence). The sliders are linear to 0.

SIOP Planner - Offense

The Offensive aspect of the SIOP planner is much more detailed than the defensive aspect. Assuming the airbases for bombers and the target sets have already been populated, there are six major logical blocks in defining the offense for each side:

  1. Define the target sectors to be attacked in this scenario. Not all target sectors need to be attacked, but they can be. jump
  2. Define the Offensive Triad. This is the number of land-based missiles, submarines with cruise and ballistic missiles, and bombers with cruise missiles and gravity bombs. jump
  3. Define the attack geography. This includes initial basing options and significant route points. jump
  4. Plan the attack. This can be either in terms of warheads versus classes of missiles or desired PK versus target classes. jump
  5. Execute the route planner. This will generate attack routing and launch points. jump
  6. Synchronize the attack. By default the entire attack occurs immediately at the beginning of the scenario. The synchonization interface allows the attack to be delayed or staged in phases over time. The sychronization is independent between the sides, so attack/retaliation cycles can be modeled. jump
  7. If the airbase deployment or target set specification must be done prior to using this tool. Airbases are defined using the standard Mission Planner individual asset deployment, described here . For information on setting up target sets click here .

Clicking in either the BLUE or RED OFFENSE blocks brings up the SIOP PLANNING SIDE FORM . The colored bar along the top (in this case blue) indicates the side being planned. You will want to enter this iterface twice, once for each side, to develop a two-sided attack.

*** WARNING! Under the current SIOP planner interface when you enter the SIOP planner offensive planner for a side any current attack data for that side is DELETED! This means that once you enter this interface YOU MUST COMPLETE IT or that side will not attack! (Bogus but true. The good news ic the interface is simple & fast to use)***

Specify Target Sectors to Attack

The first thing to do is to specify the target sectors you plan to attack in this scenario. These target sectors correspond to those used when defining the target sets and should be related to geography. If you need to review the targets in each sector bring up the Mission Planner target definition interface under "Scenario Defn->Specific Assets->Targets".

Define Triad

Having specified the target sectors to attack, specify the attack force for this side in terms of "triad" elements. The triad is defined as

  1. land based missiles (notionally ICBM, though shorter range missiles could be specified, but use caution in assigning the target sector versus launch site map).
  2. Submarines with cruise and ballistic missiles
  3. Bombers with cruise missiles and gravity bombs.

These triad elements are color coded in the interface. All TRIAD forces under the three categories that have been selected to date are listed, along with the number/quantity, and shown on individual buttons. In this sample scenario for example:

Under the first sub-section ICBM DATA - # Missiles, 3 Peacekeeper Totaling 30 RVs appears as a button. This indicates that there are 10 Peacekeeper type ICBMs with a total of 30 RVs (10 RVs per ICBM). Other ICBM types that are listed in the SIOP database may be added via the drop down window under Add ICBM Type . The quantity of each chosen ICBM type is also defined on the CHANGE ATTACK that appears when the Add ICBM Type button is chosen.

Under the second subsection SUBMARINE DATA there is a: 3 Delta IV button and a test button on a single line. Clicking on the 3 Delta IV button brings up the CHANGE ATTACK Form with the Asset Type: Delta IV listed. On the New Quantity line the user may change the total number of the stated asset type - currently 3 - by typing in the new quantity.

The asset and quantity may be either saved or deleted (by entering 0) by clicking on the SAVE bar to complete the action.

A new type weapon may be added to each category by selecting Add Sub Type button. This brings up the drop-down listing of all Submarine types listed in the current database - Whiskey and Mini-sub. Any submarine types (e.g. Delta IV) already selected will not appear on this list since they are already available in the upper part. When one is selected (e.g. Whiskey) the CHANGE ATTACK Form with the Asset Type: Whiskey appears. The quantity required must be typed and then saved. The new type of weapon, Whiskey, will then be listed on the SUBMARINE DATA section.

Also, the optoins for types and number of weapons assigned to this platform (e.g. Whiskey) are listed on a button to the right of the Whiskey platform (See example ). These are listed by user name and sometimes are cryptic. For this reason there's a review/edit current configuration option on this list. If you find a configuration named something like "test" and don't know what that might mean click this option and it'll present the data in a window. Bare is always an option and when selected it indicates that no weapons will be assigned.

To add a new weapon configuration for this platform click on the Bare and select Define New Configuration. The DEFINE NEW LOADOUT Form appears indicating the Carrier: Whiskey. On this form the New Configuration Description is typed-in (e.g. SS-N-18). On the Missile Type: line a drop down window appears with the missile types in the database listed. One is selected: SS-N-18. On the New Quantity line, the quantity of missiles is selected in a scroll bar listing 0-24. Select 8 . On the Delivery Range For Planning (NM) line the user chooses the range of the missiles - 0 to 2000 NM. Select 1000 . Lastly, the user may or may not activate the Use This Config For Default button. This causes this new configuration, SS-N-18, to always appear with the type of missiles (SS-N-18), quantity of missiles (8 ) with the missile range of 1000 NM to always appear when the configuration is chosen.

Finally, specifying the number and loadout of bombers similar to submarine s except there is a single label for the number of gravity bombs the bomber can carry. This is not editable in this interface. Instead the number and type of nuclear gravity bombs the bomber can carry is specified per platform in database prototyping .

Define Attack Geography

Having defined the triad, the next step is to define geographical relationships. These relationships are defined in the sub-section labeled SITE RELATIONSHIPS. The relationships define:

  1. Where Land-based missile can be launched from and which target sectors they can target from each site

  2. Similarly, where submarines can be and launch missiles from and which target sectors they can target from each site

  3. Bomber/ALCM route information. Bomber routes are defined in terms of a launch base, a staging point (an arbitrary point in the sky they fly to after launch), a commit point, an ALCM launch point, and (optionally) a return base. Using this information they will launch, proceed to the staging point (optionally they can loiter at the staging point), then proceed to the commit point, proceed to the ALCM launch point, fly to targets to drop gravity bombs if they have any, and then proceed to a recovery base. The ALCM launch point must be specified even if the bomber isn't carrying any ALCMs. Bombers without gravity bombs will recover to bases immediately after launching their ALCMs. As stated, the recovery base map is option; if this isn't provided bombers will return to their launch bases.

The seven buttons in the SITE RELATIONSHIPS permitting the user to specify this geographic information are:

1. ICBM Launch Sites to Sectors

Selection brings up the ICBM/Sector Form with the Sector(s) and ICBM Point(s) presented in row and column format. Land-based missiles can only be launched from sites specified through this interface and will only attack targets in the sectors selected as possible from each site. The Sectors are listed in a row across the top of the form while the ICBM Launch Sites are presented in a column on the left side of the form. This arrangement allows the user to assign an ICBM Launch Site to a specific target Sector via a small Off/On button in the box where the Launch Site and Sector intersect. There are two buttons at the bottom of the form, Add Sector Point and Add ICBM Point.

Selecting the Add ICBM Point brings up the SIOP Pts Form that lists the Type: (e.g. ICBM) and three lines on which the user may type in the:

Or the user may choose to select the location from the map via the Select Location from the Map button. The user then clicks on the geographical point on the screen and the Lat/Long appears on the form. Or the Base Pt. On Target Info option can be selected. If this is selected a list of targets for both sides is provided and the user can specify that the location of a target corresponds to this site by double-clicking on it. The Save Data button saves the point and adds it to the ICBM/Sector Form where it may be activated when required. REMEMBER TO SAVE THE DATA.

Selecting the Add Sector Point button brings up the form with any remaining Sectors in the Target Configuration Interface listed. If there are no remaining sectors a NO CAN DO Form appears instructing the user to Insert New Sectors in the Target Configuration Interface.

2. Sub Patrol Sites to Sectors

Selection brings up the Sub/Sector Form with the Sector(s) and Sub Point(s) are presented in column and row format. As with the ICBM sites, submarine-based missiles can only be launched by the SIOP planner from sites specified through this interface and will only attack targets in the sectors selected as possible from each site. If desired it is possible to manually specify missile deployment and launches anywhere in the world through the Mission Planner Individual Asset deployment interface regardless of these points, but here the discussion focuses on the SIOP planner procedures.

The Sectors are listed in a row across the top of the form while the Sub Patrol Sites are presented in a column on the left side of the form. This arrangement allows the user to assign a Sub Patrol Site to a specific target Sector via a small Off/On button in the box where the Patrol Site and Sector intersect. There are two buttons at the bottom of the form, Add Sub Point and Add Sector Point .

Selecting the Add Sub Point brings up SIOP Pts interface listing the Type: (e.g. Sub) and three lines on which the user may type in the same data and with the same controls as for an ICBM launch point.

3. ALCM Launch PT to Sectors

This interface defines all points from which bombers can launch ALCMS and maps them to target sectors. While it might seem odd to specify the ALCM launch point before specifying the prior bomber route data, its believed that most users focus on the attack and then back-plan the route to get there as an afterthought. Also, the SIOP planner is advanced enough that if an ALCM launch point is legally defined but the bomber's route to get there is not defined in terms of staging and commit points, the SIOP planner specifies that the bomber is in flight at the beginning of the scenario. So the ALCM launches will occur even if the prior steps are skipped. This is the third critical geographic mapping, the other only provide more realistic attack profiles.

Selection brings up the CMlaunch/Sector Form with the Sector(s) and CMlaunch Point(s) are presented in column and row format. The Sectors are listed in a row across the top of the form while the ALCM Launch PTs are presented in a column on the left side of the form. This arrangement allows the user to assign a ALCM Launch PT to a specific target Sector via a small Off/On button in the box where the Launch PT and Sector intersect. There are two buttons at the bottom of the form, Add CMlaunch Point and Add Sector Point.

Selecting the Add CMlaunch Point brings up the: SIOP Pts Form that lists the Type: (e.g. CMlaunch) and three lines on which the user may type in the:

The controls are the same as for defining and editing ICBM launch sites.  There are four options used to define candidate bomber attack route.  The route is envisioned as flights from bases to staging areas, from there to cruise missile launch points (this step can be skipped for bombers loaded with only gravity bombs), then flying to targets to attack them with gravity bombs ( this step can be skipped for bombers with only cruise missiles), and then returning to a base (not necessarily the same one they started from).  The targeting information can be derived from the target list specified in the next step.  This leaves the following location sets that need to be defined to support SIOP planning:

Selection brings up the Launch/Staging Form , Staging/Commit Points(s) Form , Commit/CMlaunch Form, and the CMlaunch/Recovery Form respectively. The purpose of each of these is defining a realistic bomber attack was described above. All of these interfaces are optional; if the approach profile for the bomber to the ALCM launch point is not defined the SIOP planner will place the bomber at the earliest point in it's route that is defined and the bomber will be in midair at the beginning of the scenario. Without full approach data the SIOP planner can not synchronize the bomber's attack, but the bomber will be allowed to launch as long as an ALCM launch point is defined. If the recovery base matrix is not filled in for an ALCM launch point the point might still be used, but any bombers using it will be sent back to their base of origin, if defined. If recovery and launch bases are both indefined the bomber will attack (including any gravity bomb attacks) and loiter at it's last place of attack, either over the ALCM launch point or where it dropped its last bomb.

Each of these interfaces provides a cross-matrix for mapping an initial point (e.g. Launch Point) to a final point (e.g. A staging point). The interfaces each allow the user to edit existing points by clicking on the column (or row) headers and editing and saving the data in the resulting SIOP Pts Form. New points of any of these types can also be added by clicking on the "Add" option on the bottom on the appropriate cross-matrix.

Attack Planning

The next part of defining a SIOP plan is to plan the attack. There are two means to input an attack plan. FORCES has a legacy SIOP planning tool that allocates triad elements against targets according to desired objectives and geographic constraints. These objectives are defined in terms of desired probabilities of kills against different target classes. Because MESA also has a target allocation method, a second interface allowing the user to specify the allocation of warheads versus targets by class. At the bottom of the SIOP planner form is are two buttons to proceed to either of these two attack planning options. The first is labeled Proceed to Planning , and is an interface to the legacy SIOP planning by target objective. The second is labeled Input MESA Attack and takes permits MESA targeting allocations to be used by the SIOP planner.

Jump to SIOP Planning using MESA Inputs

SIOP Planning Using Targeting Objectives

At the bottom left of the initial SIOP PLANNER Form is a Proceed to Planning button. This option Selection brings up the SIOP Strategic Planner Form. This interface allows the user to define an attack in terms of the targets to be destroyed. There are two major sections to this interface. On the left side of the form the target categories are listed. Only target categories included in the target configuration are listed, so the list changes according to the target configuration specifications. This means that this interface automatically adapts as the user creates new target classes though the Mission Planner target definition interface. The following is listed for each target category:

  1. Name of the category of targets (e.g. Communications ).
  2. Three target priorities - PRIORITY - A, B, & C for each category of targets.
  3. DESIRED PK for each Priority class. Each Priority Class (A, B, C) has a line where the desired PK for that class can be typed by the user. Note that the target list will automatically reorder reorder when a new PK is entered (and the enter button is hit) for the "A" priority targets for any class. The intent is to maintain a display of prioritized targets by objective to aid the user.
  4. WARHEADS. Thisprovides a reference of the number of warheads prequired to achieve the desired PK against "typical" hard, medium and soft targets. This information is provided by the displayed three numbers (e.g. 4/2/1). This number is just a quick reference for the user and is not used directly for the warhead usage evalation presented in the top-right corner of the screen or in the final target/weapon pairing that is done when the user proceeds to route planning.

If you don't see a target category you need return to the Mission Planner target configuration interface under "Scenario Defn->Specific Elements->Targets and add the targets of the desired type to your configuration (or change the configuration if required). New sectors can also be added through this interface. If the target type you want is not available, add a new target and click on the "Target Type" button and select "New Target Type" from the list; you'll be guided in adding a new type interactively. It's best to restart not just the SIOP planner but the entire Mission Planner when major changes (e.g. New sectors or new target types) are made.

On the top-right corner of the form a color-coded label indicates that number of available weapons (according to the triad specification provided by the user in the prior SIOP form) and the assigned warheads. The assigned warheads are computed according to the desired PK indicated per target class on the right side of the screen and is recomputed whenever the user inputs a new number in one of the entry fields and hits an "Enter" button while in one of these fields. It computes the number of warheads required according to the targets listed in the target configuration and uses the actual hardness of the target to determine the number of typical warheads required instead of using the number of warheads estimated for hard/medium/soft targets shown on the left side of the screen. This data is colored coded.

Green: When the available warheads exceed the assigned warheads.

Yellow: When the available warheads and assigned warheads are nearly equal.

Red : When the available warheads are less the assigned warheads. Note that the user can return to the triad allocation using the "Return to SIOP Allocation" button in the lower-right corner of this interface if a problem is found at this point.

Beneath this warhead availability/assigned data is another sub-section listing the Warheads Used for each of the sectors in this target configuration - e.g. NE: sector. This data shows the number of warheads assigned, to date, to each of the target sectors. As targets, priorities, PK or strategy are modified, these numbers are automatically revised accordingly.

Below this is a slider bar indicating the percent of reserve fuel required on each bomber. Generally, NFORCES uses a simplified attrition model, so the user is not required to actually fly tankers out to refueling points to support the attack. This is done to make scenario setup easier. But when routes are planned an estimate of the number of tanker sorties required to support the attack is provided for reference. This estimate is based upon the following data from this reserve requirement and the bomber and tanker platform definitions found in database prototyping:

  1. The bomber's fuel burn rate.
  2. The tanker's bladded subsystem capability

If the generated tanking sortie estimates look queer, review these values. Also verify that the routes are fully defined for each bomber. The routes can be reviewed and edited in detail via the SIOP attack report persented after route planning. As described in the attack geographic mapping section, above, the bombers are placed in midair at the beginning of the scenario if a route can not be fully determined back to a launch base from the ALCM release point, so these bombers would not burn the full amount of fuel that would otherwise be expected.

On the bottom of the form are four more buttons that provide higher level control.

1. Employ Preplanned Strategy.

As far as the SIOP is concerned, strategies are lists of desired PKs against target types (as listed on the left of this screen). Upon selection, a drop-down window appears with all the currently Strategies listed (e.g. Decapitation, Counter Offensive, Annihilation and Retaliation ) allowing the user to select one. Choosing a strategy causes the Category of Targets, the Target Priorities, the desired PKs for each Priority Class and the of Warheads to fill-in with the proper figures. The Desired PK may be subsequently manually modified by the user.

On the same drop-down menu beneath a separator line are five other options:

Save Displayed Values to Current Strategy .

Choosing this option saves the "Desired PK" values to the current strategy. If the Displayed Data differs from the Data for the selected strategy a CONFIRM Form appears. If selected, this will update the definition of this strategy so it can be reused later.

Save Displayed Values to New Strategy .

Choosing this option saves the values to a new or different strategy and brings up the STRATEGY NAME Form on which the user types in the new name of the strategy and saves it. This strategy can then be used in later SIOP planner executions (it will show up in the "Employ Preplanned Strategy" list).

Delete Current Strategy.

Choosing this option deletes the current strategy. A CONFIRM Form appears. Once deleted the strategy will no longer show up in the "Emploe Preplanned Strategy" list in later runs.

Export Displayed Strategy.

Clicking on this option brings up the Select Strategy Output File Form on which the File Name is entered and the file named is saved. This outputs the strategy information to a file that can then easily be transferred to other users at other sites by floppy, email, etc.

Import Saved Strategy.

This complements the Export option, above. Clicking on this option brings up the Select Strategy Input File Form on which the File Name is entered or one of the existing file names presented on the form is chosen to import.

2. Return to SIOP Allocation.

Selection returns the user to the SIOP PLANNER Form. Useful if the targeting or triad data is wrong or needs to be reviewed.

3. Determine Deployment and Default Routing.

This option will move the user into the fifth step, namely route planning, described here . FYI - The SIOP planner will work if either too few or too many warheads are assigned. If too few warheads are assigned it use only those assigned and will spread them over different carriers, but with a preference for using ICBMs, then subs, and finally bombers. But it will sometimes use bombers when ICBMs are available to mitigate risk. If too many are assigned it will work through the target list as far as it can, assigning at least one warhead per target before targeting redundently.

4. Exit

The universal SIOP bail-out button. WARNING: If you choose to bail out of the SIOP planner at this point there will be no attack data for this side. Any previously defined attack was deleted for this side when the SIOP interface was invoked.

Plan SIOP Attack Using Mesa Inputs

This interface allows the user to specify an attack by inputting the number of warheads by carrier against different target classes, as defined in the target configuration. At the bottom center of the SIOP Planner Form is an Input MESA Attack button. Selection brings up the SIOP/MESA Strategic Planner Form with the MESA Targeting Inputs: listed. There are two primary categories of information: Weapon Types (e.g. Bear-H1) in the first column and Target Categories across the top of the form (e.g. Command and Control). Each of the Weapon Types includes the:

  1. Type or Name of the Weapon (e.g. Bear-H1),
  2. Total Number of Weapons of this type (e.g. Number: 10),
  3. Total Number of Warheads (e.g. Warheads: 30)

assigned to this total of those particular weapons. Again, these are listed in the first column of the form. Each of the Target Categories defined in this target set is listed in a line across the top of the form. Again, if you don't see a target category you need return to the Mission Planner target configuration interface under "Scenario Defn->Specific Elements->Targets and add the targets of the desired type to your configuration (or change the configuration if required). New sectors can also be added through this interface. If the target type you want is not available, add a new target and click on the "Target Type" button and select "New Target Type" from the list; you'll be guided in adding a new type interactively. It's best to restart not just the SIOP planner but the entire Mission Planner when major changes (e.g. New sectors or new target types) are made.

Both the Weapon Types and Target Categories are color-coded and an explanation of what the colors indicate for each category is provided at the top of the form. The color of the borders of the Weapon Types boxes indicate:

Red for ICBMs

Dark Blue for Subs

Light Blue for Bombers

The color of the Target Categories boxes indicate the Targeting Allocation:

Yellow Indicates Not All Warheads Currently Allocated Among Target Classes.

Green Indicates 100% Of the Warheads For This Weapons Type Are Allocated .

Red Indicates More Warheads Are Allocated For This Weapon Type Than Are Defined.

When the Red color is displayed, a prompt informs the user that: (You Might Want to Return to SIOP Allocation)

A sliding bar in each Target Type/Weapon Type box allows the user to assign a specific number of warheads to that Target Type to be delivered by that Weapon Type. The scale bar in each box is limited to the total number of warheads available - as indicated in the Weapon Type column (e.g. for the Bear-H1 there are 10 listed). Another example is if there are 20 warheads available for the total SS-22 Weapons in the scenario, the scale bar is limited to 10 warheads in any single category or spread over the eight Target Categories . Color changes indicate when that limit of 10 warheads is exceeded.

Two option bars exist at the bottom of the form: Return to SIOP Allocation and Determine Deployment and Default Routing.

1. Return to SIOP Allocation.

Selection returns the user to the SIOP PLANNER Form. Useful if the targeting or triad data is wrong or needs to be reviewed.

2. Determine Deployment and Default Routing.

This option will move the user into the fifth step, namely route planning, described here . FYI - The SIOP planner will work if either too few or too many warheads are assigned. If too few warheads are assigned it use only those assigned and will spread them over different carriers, but with a preference for using ICBMs, then subs, and finally bombers. But it will sometimes use bombers when ICBMs are available to mitigate risk. If too many are assigned it will work through the target list as far as it can, assigning at least one warhead per target before targeting redundently.

Attack Route Planning

When this option is chosen, the Routes currently planned for either the Red or Blue side (depending on the side being planned) appears on the Map screen . The routes are colored according to the type of weapon system.

There are also as many as three forms that may appear: siop_debug , SIOP Targeting Report, and SIOP Plan.The SIOP Plan form is the only interface with controls; the other two are simply reports Please wait to review these until the route planner is done. This is complete when the forms respond normally instead of lagging user inputs.

When there is missing data, a SIOP Debug Form appears where all missing data is specifically identified and listed. You can return to the appropriate place (usually the geographic mapping in the first SIOP form) to fill in any missing data and try again if the problems warrant. Remember that many items are only warnings - e.g. If no recovery base is found the bomber will return to its original launch base.

Selection also brings up the SIOP Targeting Report Form listing all relevant data for either the Red or Blue side. If the user has been operating with the Red side chosen on the SIOP Planner, then the data will indicate only the information relevant to the Red side. This data includes:

When finished with this form the user selects either the Save, Print, or Exit button.The Save button brings up the Select Save File Form where the user chooses the name of the file and location to which it is to be saved. An error message will be generated if no printers are installed on your machine.

The SIOP Plan Form allows the user to:

Attack Synchonization

This option allows an attack to be synchronized. This means that attack waves can be launched at times relative to key events. These events are:

  1. Scenario start - This option is always available.
  2. Primary Bomber Takeoff - This event is only available when bombers are in the scenario.
  3. Primary Bomber Commit - The time at which the primary bomber (as picked by the user) should arrive at its commit point. For a number of reasons (e.g. This aircraft is shot down or fly faster than expected) this might not agree exactly with the scenario execution; this time is simply based on the bombers takeoff time, the distance from the launch base to the commit point, and the speed traveled. This event is only available when bombers are in the scenario.
  4. Primary ALCM Launch - The time at which the primary bomber (as picked by the user) should arrive at its ALCM launch point. For a number of reasons (e.g. This aircraft is shot down or fly faster than expected) this might not agree exactly with the scenario execution; this time is simply based on the bombers takeoff time, the distance from the launch base to the ALCM launch point, and the speed traveled. This event is only available when bombers are in the scenario.

The times for other attack events, namely launches of ICBMS, sub-based missiles, and other bombers, can be planned relative to these events. Note that the times for these other events need not match the 4 events listed above. Instead time offsets (e.g. Launch 10 ICBMs 2 hours after the primary bomber takeoff) can be planned. And not all events of a type need to happen at the same offset or even based on the same event. For example, a plan can specify 10 ICBM launches at the beginning of the scenario, 10 more 60 minutes afterwards, and another 10 30 minutes before the primary bomber is expected to arrive at its ALCM launch point.

Important - If there are any bombers in the scenario it's definitely best to select the primary bomber (using the P ick Primary Bomber button) FIRST, that is before scheduling any attack elements.

The Attack Synchronize Form consists of four columns and six lines. The first column is titled:

  1. Triad Element/Event. There are five Triad events listed in this column:
    1. Scenario Start. Listed on this line are the numbers of events for each force leg of the Triad (e.g. Bombers, Subs and ICBMs).
    2. Primary Bomber Takeoff. This line lists the number of bombers included in this takeoff event.
    3. Primary Bomber Commit. The number of bombers included in this commit event is listed.
    4. Primary ALCM Launch. The number of bombers included in this launch event is listed.
    5. Reserve. Listed are the numbers of Bombers, Subs and ICBMs currently in reserve and available for assignment by the planner. The term "reserve" might be misleading in this context. These are the elements that are not currently scheduled to attack in a synchronized manner in the upper 4 rows. By default these elements will launch, but at the beginning of the scenario. As items are scheduled for launch this number will decrease to reflect their losses. Tailoring can occur even after all of these reserves have been used by selected the appropriate event row above this column and changing either the number or time of any attack element. Note - the number of bombers in reserve and synchronized will always reflect one less bomber than the total; this is because the one primary bomber is handled as a special case.
  2. The second column is titled Bombers and in the first block specifies the total number of bombers available in the scenario. The sub-totals of these assigned to each of the events in the column/blocks directly below Bombers.
  3. The third column is titled Sub Launches and in the first block specifies the total number of Sub Launches available in the scenario. The sub-totals of the launches assigned to each of the events in the column directly below Sub Launches.
  4. The fourth column is titled ICBMs and in the first block specifies the total number of ICBMs available in the scenario. The subtotals of these missiles assigned to each event are listed in the column directly below ICBMs.

The options along the bottom of this form are:

  1. Pick Primary Bomber . Clicking this bar brings up a list of types of bombers already identified in the planner (e.g. Bear-H). Choosing a type of bomber brings up a sub-listing of all the individual bombers of this type (e.g. Tail: 1 - Base: Red - 4). Included in this data are the Tail Number (e.g. Tail: 1) and Base (e.g. Base: Red - 4) for each bomber. Selection of one bomber assigns that specific aircraft as the Primary Bomber from which all other planned attack synchronization actions/events are timed . Also when the primary bomber is selected the CONFIRM Form appears that asks the user: Do You Want to Save Primary Bomber Spec? . The Name (e.g. BEAR-H1) and Tail (e.g. 1) is listed on the form plus a line on which the user may type the Take Off Time (Minutes:) . This time is based on the time, in minutes, from the beginning of the simulation. Once the time is filled-in the data is saved and the user is returned to the Attack Synchronization Form.

  2. The Execute button will actually implement the attack synchronization in the scenario; until this button is bit the scenario attack is not changed from the default "attack at time 0".

  3. The Return button will return to the top level SIOP interface WITHOUT implementing the attack synchronization. If this button is selected the scenario attack is not changed from the default "attack at time 0".

At this point, the user allocates and thereby synchronizes all weapon systems of all three of the TRIAD elements. This is accomplished by the following actions:

First, the user chooses the Event box (e.g. Scenario Start) from which that element (either Bombers, # Sub Launches, or ICBMs) is to be synchronized .

Second, the number (e.g. #0) in the box is highlighted with the mouse causing a drop-down menu to appear with the option: Add Synchronized Element(s) . When chosen, a small Synch Attack Form appears. On this form the user fills in the # and T+(min) lines. The # line assigns the quantity of the elements (e.g. Bombers ) to the specific time, T+(min), that is relative to the takeoff of the Primary Bomber. For example, when the Primary Takeoff box is selected, any elements subsequently assigned to this box are synchronized to the takeoff time of the Primary Bomber. Each selection reduces the number of elements held in Reserve block for that particular element. The quantities and times of all elements may be modified by the user by selecting the desired Element box, choosing the specific number to be modified, and changing either the number of elements and/or the time(s).

Reducing the number or quantity of elements places the extra elements back into the Reserve box.

After a initial cell selection is made (e.g. Launch 10 ICBMS and 60 minutes after scenario start) the number "10" will show up in the ICBM/Scenario Start Cell. When this cell is clicked again options are provided to either modify this attack set or create a new attack. In this case a command to launch another 5 ICBMs at 120 minutes after scenario start can be entered. The total number of ICBMs tied to the scenario start ("15") will appear in the cell. Clicking on the cell will show 10 are scheduled at T+60 and another 5 an T+120. Either of these entries can be modified.