BUILDING A SCENARIO


Introduction:


FORCES supports a variety of applications and requirements - each requiring a simulation or scenario. The degree of effort required to build such a scenario is directly dependent upon its’ purpose and complexity. For instance, a scenario simulating a Korean conflict, with all military forces in that theater included, would be highly complex and require an extensive effort to construct. On the other hand, a simple air defense scenario might entail only two aircraft – an attacker and a defender. Most requirements fall between the complex and simple scenarios. Regardless, building any scenario is simply a series of steps. When multiple elements are required, the pertinent steps are repeated with separate data entered for each.


Building a Scenario.


A scenario requires the simulation of four primary elements:

1. Objects with defined attributes and the capability to exist/function/operate in a realistic manner,

2. The grouping of objects to form organizational entities,

3. Geographical areas/sites,

4. Environmental conditions.

FORCES provides the capability to create/define/deploy these elements and graphically display and, finally, control them.


I. Creating Objects. (Objects with defined attributes and capabilities that exist/function/operate in a realistic manner).


Before creating a scenario, the user must identify the objects to be included. The desired attributes, capabilities and perimeters of each object must also be known. For example, an aircraft (object) is needed for the scenario. Depending on the requirements, this aircraft may be created and incorporated via three means:


How to Create:


A. Aircraft.

An aircraft is identified for a scenario that may or may not already be in one of the JFORCES databases - an F-15 for example. To check the database to find if such an aircraft exists take the following actions:


  1. Start JFORCES.

  2. Under “Systems Controls” select “DBA” -> “DBA Prototyping” -> Platform Class Definitions” -> “Display All Platforms” and scroll down to the F-15 listings.

There are three such platforms currently listed: “f-15”, “F-15E” and “F-15C”. Either one may be chosen or a new F-15 platform created.

  1. Choosing an existing F-15: When one of the F-15s is chosen (e.g. “F-15E”), the “Existing Platform” form to appears with the icon, name and category displayed at the top. The attributes of this specific platform are listed as well as the subsystems and performance limitations. All such data may be changed or modified. (Note: when data is modified, the system retains the changes. All future scenarios that utilize that database and the F-15E platforms will operate under these new perimeters and changes).

  2. Creating a new F-15 platform: At the bottom of the “Selected Platform” form is a “Create New Platform Type” bar.


You now have an F-15F platform in the database.


B. Airbase.

Once an airbase is required for a scenario, the database may or may not have the type of airbase required. Take the following actions to check the database and find if such an airbase exists:


  1. Start JFORCES.

  2. Under “Systems Controls” select “DBA” -> “DBA Prototyping” -> Platform Class Definitions” -> “Platforms by Category” and -> “Air Bases”. A listing of the types of air bases appears.

  3. Choosing an existing Air Base: Choose the type of air base required (e.g. “Blue Primary Airbase”). The “Existing Platform” form appears with the icon, name and category of the base is displayed at the top. The attributes of this base are listed as well as the subsystems (other objects) on the base. All such data may be changed or modified. (Note: when data is modified, the system retains the changes. All future scenarios that utilize that database and the Blue Primary Airbase will retain these changes).

  4. Creating a new Air Base: At the bottom of the “All Platforms” form – Air Base - is a “Create New Platform Type” bar.


You now have a Blue Landing Strip in the database.


    1. Satellite.

Once a satellite or satellite system is required for a scenario, the database may or may not have the type of satellite required. Take the following actions to check the database and find if such a satellite exists:


  1. Start JFORCES.

  2. Under “Systems Controls” select “DBA” -> “DBA Prototyping” -> Platform Class Definitions” -> “Platforms by Category” and -> “Space Sensor”. A list of the types of satellites appears.

  3. Choosing an existing Satellite: Choose the type of satellite required (e.g. “sbradar”). The “Editing Platform” form appears with the icon, name and category of the base is displayed at the top. The subsystems of this satellite are listed as well as performance tables. All such data may be changed or modified. (Note: when data is modified, the system retains the changes. All future scenarios that utilize that database and the “sbradar” satellite will retain these changes).

  4. Creating a new Satellite type: At the bottom of the “All Platforms” form – “Space Sensor” - is a “Create New Platform Type” bar.


You now have a Big Bird in the database.


  1. Creating a Satellite Constellation (w/chosen or new satellite):


II. Grouping of objects to form organizational entities.

A. Air Squadron.

Create an air squadron for a scenario.


  1. Start JFORCES.

  2. Choose the scenario and database in which the squadron is required.

  3. Under “Systems Controls” select “Mission Planner”. Select the “Scenario Defn” (that appears on the Master Control menu) -> “Specific Elements” -> “Squadrons” and the “Squadron Review” form with the Current Squadrons listed. The “Name” of the squadron (e.g. 101st Fighter Squadron), the “Call” (Sign) (e.g. Tiger), the “Base” (e.g. Tyndall AFB), and the “Type” of base (e.g. Air) is listed for each squadron.

  4. Choosing an existing Squadron to edit: Choose the squadron (e.g. “101st FS”). The “Squadron Review” form expands to reveal the “Detailed Squadron Editing” section listing the “Current (Squadron) Assignments” (with “Type” and “#” for each). If the types and quantities are sufficient, simply exit the form. If additional types and quantities are required, select “Add New Elements By Type” bar and an additional section of the form, “Select Type and Number of Assets to Add”, appear. Select the type of aircraft (e.g. F-16) from the drop down window and the quantity of F-16s (e.g. 12) with the scale bar – and Save.

  5. Creating a new Squadron: On the “Squadron Review” form select “Create a New Squadron” and the ““Squadron Review” (“Define New Squadron”) form appears. Type in the “Name” and “Call Sign” and select the “Base” from the drop down menu that lists all air bases in this scenario. Also, select the type of squadron - “Air’ or Naval” - and the “Side” - Blue, Red, or White - to which the squadron belongs. Save and/or Exit. You now have a new squadron in the scenario.


B. Ground Unit.

Create a ground unit for a scenario.


  1. Start JFORCES.

  2. Choose the scenario and database in which the unit is required.

  3. Under “Systems Controls” select “Mission Planner”.

  1. Two items remain to be defined: the location of the unit (Latitude and Longitude) and the route(s) it will take (if it’s a mobile unit and is to move during the scenario).

    1. Location: The location of the unit may be typed into the form (if known) or selected from the map. The latter is done by clicking on “Locate” (at top of form) and “Select Location from the Map”. The Master Menu (blue section) prompts this action and the user selects the point from the map screen – and then the Lat/Long appears on the form.

    2. Route(s): Defining the routes (when required)


III. Creating an Organization.

An organizational unit must be created for a scenario.


A. Steps.

  1. Start JFORCES.

  2. Choose the scenario and database in which the organization is required.

Some or all of the refinements may be utilized.


Subordinate units (if already designated) are listed by Class (e.g. Mech Inf BDE) and Type (e.g. Group) along with the quantity of that specific unit.


Should a subordinate unit be needed, it can be created by clicking on the “Sub Group” button and filling in the “Define New Group” form as described above.










Reviewed (“Review”). Causes the specific “Route Data” data to appear listing the Legs with:

The entire route may be deleted or modified.

Any leg may also be:

Selected (“Select”). Selects a route from the list.


Displayed on the map (“Display” button). The route is displayed on the screen – in its’ designated geographical location.


Find users of this route (“List Users’). A list of the units/groups utilizing this route is displayed.


Analyzed (“Analyze”). Displays the routes’ properties


Route ID. This is the route ID number. Selection brings up the “Pick Route” form (again).


Home Base. The unit’s home base that may be re-designated from list of home bases in the menu.


Parent. The parent of the unit may be re-designated from the list of parent units.


At the bottom of this section there are two other capabilities:


“Select Location from Map”. Allows the location of the unit to be changed by clicking on the Map. Prompt in the blue portion of the Master menu.


“Check Operational Tasks”. Selection causes the “Operational Task Data” form to appear where all the operational tasks of the unit/organization are listed. Note: There must be assets assigned to the unit before tasks may be assigned to it.

IV. Creating Targets.

Targets are most often required in Air scenarios where specific targets are identified and designated for air attack. Both sides may or may not have the airpower to attack the targets of the other side. If they do, both Blue and Red targets must be designated and placed into their respective target configuration. Each target must have a Name, a Location and its Type (e.g. Strategic Offense) designated. In rare cases, it may be also necessary to group targets into sectors. In rarer cases, a third target configuration (other than Red and Blue) may be needed.


A. Create or modify Target(s) for a scenario.


  1. Start JFORCES.

  2. Choose the scenario and database in which the targets are required.

  3. Under “Systems Controls” select “Mission Planner”. Select the “Scenario Defn” (that appears on the Master Control menu) -> “Specific Elements” -> “Targets” causing the “Current Target Configuration” form to appear with current targets configurations listed for both the Red and Blue sides. The Name, Type and Location of each target are listed.

  4. To edit or peruse a specific target, highlight and double click on it. The “Target Definition” form appears with the Name, Location, and Type repeated. Also listed are other attributes of this target:

    1. Type Priority (A, B, or C) – “A” is the highest priority.

    2. Sector – The Sector in which the target is located,

    3. Kill Level – Levels range from .1 to 1. This is the level of destruction required for the target to be considered “killed”.

    4. Damage Level - Levels range from .1 to 1. This is the level of damage required for the target to be considered “damaged”.

    5. Subtype of the target – Only used when there is a subtype or secondary aspect to the target.

  5. Select “Create New Target” and the “Target Definition” form appears with the Name, Location, Type and other attributes of the new target that must be defined by the user. The Name, Kill Level, and Damage Level are typed onto the form while the Location, Type, Type Priority and Sector are selected from sub menus.

  6. A new Sector may also be created or modified when necessary. “Modify Target Sector Data” – causes the “Target Sectors” form to appear with all current sectors listed. Each listed sector may be edited by highlighting and double clicking on it. The sector’s Name, Designation and parameters may be modified as required. A totally new sector may be created via “Add Target Sector” and filling in the necessary data on the form presented.


B. Create a new Target Class or to edit an existing one for a scenario.


  1. Start JFORCES.

  2. Choose the scenario and database in which the unit is required.

  3. Under “Systems Controls” select “Edit Target Classes”. The “Target Types” form appears with all current target classes listed. To edit a specific class select it and the attributes of that class appears.

  4. To create a new target class select “Create New Target Class” and the “Add Target Type” form appears. Type the name of the new target type and click on “Add”. This new name will now appear as an alternative target type on the “Type” menu line of the “Target Definition” form. To check that this action has occurred, go to the “Target Definition” form by selecting:


V. Creating Routes.

In almost all scenarios there will be objects and or units that must travel or move. To do so, routes must be established for these assets.


A. To create a route for a scenario.


  1. Start JFORCES.

  2. Choose the scenario and database in which the unit is required.

Under “Systems Controls” select “Mission Planner”. Select the “Scenario Defn” (that appears on the Master Control menu) -> “Specific Elements” -> “Routes” causing the “Pick Route” form to appear with current routes listed. A “New Route” is created (via the “New Route” bar). The “Name New Route’ form appears. The Name and Route ID is typed onto this form and Accept is entered causing another form, “Route Data” to appear.

First, select “Add Another Leg” (none have yet been created). Then fill in the following data:


Once a route is created, it may also be deleted (“Delete Entire Route”).

Any leg created may also be deleted or modified:

To review, analyze, or display a route in the scenario.


  1. Start JFORCES.

  2. Choose the scenario and database in which the unit is required.

  3. Under “Systems Controls” select “Mission Planner”. Select the “Scenario Defn” (that appears on the Master Control menu) -> “Specific Elements” -> “Routes” causing the “Pick Route” form to appear with current routes listed.








VI. Defining a Region, Zone and/or Area of Responsibility (AOR).


A. Steps:


  1. Start JFORCES.

  2. Choose the scenario and database in which the unit is required.

  3. Under “Systems Controls” select “Critical Regions” and the “Critical” form appears with six choices:

    1. Friendly Airspace.

    2. ADIZ.

    3. Keep Out Zones.

    4. C2 Areas of Responsibility.

    5. C2 Threat Evaluation Values.

    6. Terrain Clutter Data.

The selection of any of the above choices causes a “Regional Definition” form to appear with somewhat similar elements.

First, designate either Red or Blue to represent the side to which the region applies.

Next, choose either “Review Region Data” (if such data already exists) or “Create New Region of this Type” – meaning the type of critical region initially selected on the “Critical” form.

Selection of the “Create New Region of this Type” causes the form to expand to include:

“Review Region Assignments”. This option allows the user to review or define these particular region types of assignments (up to four separate assignments).

“Define Region on Map”. This allows the user to define the parameters of the area on the map.

“Save” or “Delete” a Region.


(Can expand last section in more detail if required)


VII. Creating Subsystems.

Objects usually have subsystems assigned – as well as performance parameters. These subsystems usually already exist in the database and may be simply selected and assigned to an object that is being created. But, occasionally a subsystem must be created from scratch.


Steps to create/edit a subsystem.


  1. Start JFORCES.

  2. Under Systems Controls select DBA -> DB Prototyping -> Subsystems Definitions. The resulting menu lists 14 categories of subsystems ranging from Armament to Warheads. Select the category of subsystem (e.g. Armament). If the database has not already been identified, a small form, “Select Database”, appears. Select the proper database (e.g. “tactical”) in which the subsystem is to apply and another form, “Select Armament to Edit”, appears with a listing of all armament subsystems that currently exist in this database.

  3. To Edit: Choosing one of the subsystems causes the “Editing Armament” form with this particular armament subsystem to appear. All the current attributes of this subsystem may be modified or changed.

  4. To Create: Select “Create New Armament Type” and a small form, “Creating Armament Type”, appears. Type the name of the new subsystem and then select the Type (e.g. SAM) from the drop down menu listing six categories (SAM, AAA, Torpedo, HGV, Other and Grd-Grd). This brings up the “Editing Armament” form where all pertinent attributes should be defined. The more accurate these entries are, the more realistically the subsystem will perform. However, the subsystem will perform even if some of the attributes listed on the form are not “filled-in”. For example, the extent of ECM Susceptibility of the subsystem may not be relative to the planned scenario. This specific section could be left blank with no other effect on the subsystem. Other entries are critical for the subsystem to perform at all. For example, if the subsystem must move it must have a speed assigned. Once the subsystem is created and saved it becomes available to attach to any object created or residing in this database.


VIII. Creating or Editing an Icon.


A. Steps:

Icons must be assigned to each object for it to appear in the simulation. JFORCES provides the capability to easily construct appropriate icons.


  1. Start JFORCES.

  2. To Edit Icons: Under “Systems Controls” select DBA -> Edit Icons. The “Icon Editor” form appears with a list of all existing icons. Select the icon to edit and the form expands to include the “Icon Viewer” section. Items that may be modified in this section include the scale of the icon (how large it will appear on the screen when a scenario containing it is run) and even the appearance of the icon itself (via the “Edit Icon Bitmap” bar).

  3. To Create an Icon: When a new platform or object is created it requires an icon to enable it to appear on the screen during a scenario run. When building a new platform, JFORCES presents a temporary default icon (“?”) on the “Editing Platform” form. Clicking on this default icon causes the “Icon Editor” form to appear with the “?” icon temporarily representing this platform. There are two ways to create the desired icon to represent this platform.

    1. First, an icon that has already been created may also be used for this platform. Selection of “Change Icon File” causes the Directory form to appear with all icon files listed (e.g. “abn.ranger.bde.gif”). When any one is chosen the icon representing this file temporarily appears on the “Icon Editor” form. In the same manner other files may be viewed until the one wanted is found.

    2. Second, if an entirely new icon is required, the user clicks on the “Create New Bitmap” bar and a “Paint” tool is presented where the icon can be defined.


IX. Deployment of Resources:

Once objects, platform, organizations, units etc are created and defined, they must be deployed to their proper geographical positions demanded by the scenario and IAW scenario objectives. Following are examples of how a base (airbase) and a ground unit are deployed.


A. How to Deploy an Airbase.


  1. Start JFORCES.

  2. Choose the scenario and database in which the unit is required.

  3. Under “Systems Controls” select “Mission Planner”.


B. How to Deploy a Ground Unit.


  1. Start JFORCES.

  2. Choose the scenario and database in which the unit is required.

  3. Under “Systems Controls” select “Mission Planner”.


X. How to Create a Scenario:

  1. Start JFORCES.

  2. Under “Systems Control” -> “Mission Planer”.

  3. On the “SELECT SCENARIO” form select the “New Scenario” bar.

  4. On the next small form select the database the scenario will utilize from the menu (e.g. “tactical”).

  5. Type the name of the scenario and “Accept”.

  6. The new scenario’s name and database will now appear in the list of scenarios available for planning and running.


XI. How to Run a Scenario:


  1. Start JFORCES.

  2. Under “Systems Control” -> “Start Scenario” the “START SCENARIO” form appears. Select “Run Configuration” bar that causes a list of all current scenarios to appear – along with the “Run Configuration”, “DB” of each scenario. This data may not be changed.

  3. Select the desired scenario and click on the “Execute” bar near the bottom of the form. Note: Normally, the remaining settings on the form may be left unchanged.

  4. A small form with the Port number (e.g. 3000) appears – click “OK”.

  5. The Message area on the Master Menu tracks the progress of the scenario’s loading. When loaded, “Sim Mode – Ready to Run” appears.

  6. Under “Systems Controls” select “Start” on the green line.

  7. The chosen scenario begins.


XII. Overlays:

FORCES provides several types of overlays and overlay options to support the many and varied objectives of users. These include:


Data Driven Overlays.

    1. These overlays are selected at “Data Driven Controls” under “Map Controls” on the Master menu.

    2. The overlays listed here have been created earlier – some of a general nature and others built to support specific scenarios. For example, the overlay “Alaska Features” features two rivers, a highway and a pipeline. A user uninterested in Alaska and these specific features would not activate them while running his scenarios.

    3. Creating/Editing Overlays:

Under “System Controls” -> “Debug Options” -> “Edit Overlays” causes the “Create/Edit Line Overlay” form to appear. Here, existing overlays may be edited or a new overlay created - via the “New Line Overlay” bar.


Unit Display Levels (not strictly an overlay).

1. Under “Map Controls” on the Master menu select “Set Unit Display Levels”. “UNIT DISPLAY LEVEL” form appears with a list of the military organizational levels. The levels of units that will appear on the screen may be manipulated according to the users’ requirements.


Direct Map Overlays.

    1. Under “Overlays over the Map screen, there is a list of several map overlays.

    2. Simply activate any one or all of them. They will then appear as respective overlays on the map.




Creating a Simple Scenario:

A very simple new scenario will be created. Consisting of:

  1. Two ground objects – a blue tank and red tank.

  2. Routes for the tanks will be defined.

  3. Two airbases – a blue and red one.

  4. Two aircraft – one assigned to the blue airbase and one to the red airbase.

  5. Routes for aircraft will be assigned.

For creating this scenario, the database, platforms and other data that have already been created will be used. In other words, new platforms, subsystems or other objects will not be created.


A. First Step:


  1. Start JFORCES.

  2. Under “Systems Control” -> “Mission Planer”.

  3. On the “SELECT SCENARIO” form select the “New Scenario” bar.

  4. On the next small form select the database the scenario will utilize from the menu (e.g. “tactical”).

  5. Type the name of the scenario (e.g. “Example”) and “Accept”.

  6. The new scenario’s name “Example” and database will now appear in the list of scenarios available for planning and running.


B. Second Step:


  1. Under “Systems Control” -> “Start Scenario Preview”.

  2. Define the Run Configuration: Under “Systems Control” -> “DBA” -> “Plan Run” -> “Run Configuration” -> “Maintain Run Configuration”. Choose a run configuration from the list on the “Plan Run Configuration” form (e.g. “test”) or select the “Create Run Configuration” bar to activate the “Creating Run” form. On this form type the name of your new configuration (e.g. “Basic Run”) and click on OK.

  3. The “Editing Plan Run” form appears. Fill in:

  4. The “CONFIRM” form appears. Select “Yes”.




C. Third Step: (Create the two tanks and assign routes to each):


  1. With JFORCES still in the Mission Planning mode, go to “Scenario Defn” -> “Specific Elements” -> “Individual Assets” form.

  2. Under “Category Filter” select “Tank”.

  3. Under “Selected Platform” select “M1/M1A”.

  4. Select the Side: “Blue”.

  5. For location, under the “Locate” button at the top of the form, select “Select Location From Map” and click the geographical location you want from the map. This Lat/Long is filled in on the form.

  6. Leave the “Site Name” currently shown, “M1/M-1” as it is.

  7. Leave the “Int. Op Time (min)” set at 0. (Means this asset becomes operational at the beginning of the scenario run).

  8. Allow “default” to remain as the “Configuration:”.

  9. Leave “Group Assignment” blank.

  10. Allow the “Call Sign” to remain as “M1/M-1”.

  11. For “Route Name” click on the bar and then choose “New Route” from form.

  12. On the “Name New Route” form type in the route’s name – “Blue Tank” – and ascertain the “Route ID” is “1”. Click “Accept” and “Blue Tank” and “1” is transferred to the “Individual Asset Defn” form.

  13. A blank “Route Data” form appears for the user to define the specific legs of the Blue Tank route 1. Select “Add Another Leg” and the “Leg Data” form appears with “Leg 1” already on the form.

  14. Select “Direct” from nine types of “Motion Type”.

  15. “Dest. Latitude” and Dest. Longitude” currently indicates the starting point of the leg (where the Blue Tank was initially located).

  16. Select “Get Location from Map” bar and click on the location on the map where Leg 1 is to terminate. The Lat/Long changes to reflect this selection.

  17. Leave “Altitude” blank.

  18. Type in the desired travel speed (kts) for the tank – “15”.

  19. Click “Save Data” and all selected data for Leg 1 now appears on the “Route Data” form. “Exit” this form. (Note: More legs may be defined in the same fashion if required).

  20. “Home Base” and “Destination” may be left blank.

  21. “Save Asset” under the “Save/Del” button at the top of the form.

  22. Click “Return”. The Blue Tank now has an assigned route.

  23. Repeat the steps that were performed for the Blue Tank to create a Red Tank. Use “T-72” for the Platform type (and select “Red”).

  24. Repeat the route creation steps to define a route with one leg for the Red Tank.

  25. To review the route just created, chose “Routes” on the “Scenario Defn” form and both defined routes are listed. Graphically display the two routes by activating the “Display” buttons listed for each route.



D. Fourth Step: (Create the two airbases):


  1. With JFORCES still in the Mission Planning mode, go to “Scenario Defn” -> “Specific Elements” -> “Individual Assets” form.

  2. Under “Category Filter” select “Air Base”.

  3. Under “Selected Platform” select “Blue Primary AB”.

  4. Select the Side: “Blue”.

  5. For location, under the “Locate” button at the top of the form, select “Select Location From Map” and click the geographical location you want from the map. This Lat/Long is filled in on the form.

  6. Leave the “Site Name” currently shown, “Blue-1” as is.

  7. Leave the “Int. Op Time (min)” set at 0. (Means this asset becomes operational at the beginning of the scenario run).

  8. Allow “default” to remain as the “Configuration:”.

  9. “Save Asset” under the “Save/Del” button at the top of the form.

  10. Repeat the steps that were performed to create the Blue Air Base to create a Red Air Base. Use “Red Primary AB” for the Platform type (and select “Red”).

  11. Both airbases now appear on the map.


E. Fifth Step: (Create two aircraft – one assigned to the blue airbase and one to the red airbase.):


    1. With JFORCES still in the Mission Planning mode, go to “Scenario Defn” -> “Specific Elements” -> “Individual Assets” form.

    2. Under “Category Filter” select “Attack A/C”.

    3. Under “Selected Platform” select “A-10”.

    4. Select the Side: “Blue”.

    5. For location, under the “Locate” button at the top of the form, select “Select Location From Map” and click on the Blue Airbase icon on the map. The Lat/Long is filled in on the form.

    6. Leave the “Site Name” currently shown, “A-10-1” as is.

    7. Leave the “Int. Op Time (min)” set at 0. (Means this asset becomes operational at the beginning of the scenario run).

    8. Allow “default” to remain as the “Configuration:”.

    9. For this example, leave “Group Assignment” blank.

    10. Leave the “Call Sign:” (A-10-1) as is.

    11. Leave the “Take Off Time (mins)” as “0” – meaning the aircraft will take-off at the start of the scenario run.

    12. For “Route Name” click on the bar and then choose “New Route” from form.

    13. On the “Name New Route” form type in the route’s name type “A-10” – and ascertain the “Route ID” is “1”. Click “Accept” and “A-10” and “1” is transferred to the “Individual Asset Defn” form.

    14. A blank “Route Data” form appears for the user to define the specific legs of the A-10 route 1. Select “Add Another Leg” and the “Leg Data” form appears with “Leg 1” already on the form.

    15. Select “Direct” from nine types of “Motion Types”. This directs the aircraft (leg of flight) to a geographical location after it takes off from the airbase.

    16. Type “20000” into the “Altitude” line.

    17. Type in the desired flight speed (kts) – “250”.

    18. Click “Save Data” and all selected data for Leg 1 now appears on the “Route Data” form.

    19. Select “Add Another Leg” the “Leg Data” form reappears.

    20. Select “Station” for the “Motion Type”.

    21. Leave “End Time (Minutes)” at its default – 99999999 – which means the aircraft will fly to its assigned station and will continue on station thru out the scenario run.

    22. Leave “Relative to Start of Leg?” deactivated which means the action is to begin at the start of the scenario.

    23. Leave all other elements as they are.

    24. Click “Save Data” and both legs now appear on the “Route Data” form.

    25. “Exit” this form. (Note: More legs may be defined in the same fashion if required).

    26. Select the “Blue-1” as the “Home Base”.

    27. The “Destination” may be left blank.

    28. “Save Asset” under the “Save/Del” button at the top of the form.


E. Sixth Step: (Run the scenario that was created and populated.)


    1. Start JFORCES.

    2. Under “Systems Control” -> “Start Scenario” the “START SCENARIO” form appears. Select “Run Configuration” bar that causes a list of all current scenarios to appear – along with the “Run Configuration”, “DB” of each scenario. This data may not be changed.

    3. Select the desired scenario – “Example” and click on the “Execute” bar near the bottom of the form. Note: Normally, the remaining settings on the form may be left unchanged.

    4. A small form with the Port number (e.g. 3000) appears – click “OK”.

    5. The Message area on the Master Menu tracks the progress of the scenario’s loading. When loaded, “Sim Mode – Ready to Run” appears.

    6. Under “Systems Controls” select “Start” on the green line.

    7. The “Example” scenario begins.


XIII. Laying a Mine Field:


  1. Start JFORCES.

  2. Choose the scenario and database in which the minefield(s) is required.

  3. Under “Systems Controls” select “Mission Planner”. Select the “Scenario Defn” (that appears on the Master Control menu) -> “Scenario Configuration” -> “Ground Fighting Parameters” -> “Define Engineering Barriers” causing the “Minefields” form to appear with all current minefields in the scenario listed. If no minefield exists, select “Add New Minefield” bar and the “Minefield Coverage” form appears. “Pick From Map” selection allows the user to select the grid coordinates from the map.

  4. The Minefield PK may be set from 0 to 1.0 – the upper setting meaning that one vehicle explodes a mine every minute that a convey (group of vehicles) transverses the minefield.


XIV. Inserting Environmental Elements into a Scenario.

Several environmental type elements may be easily introduced into a scenario. 1. Simply Start JFORCES.

2. Choose the scenario and database in which the environmental element is required.

3. Under “Systems Controls” select “Mission Planner”. Select the “Scenario Defn” (that appears on the Master Control menu) -> “Environmental Elements”.


    1. Prescripted Weather. Selection brings up the “Pre-Scripted Weather Event” form. Clicking on “Add New Weather Area” causes the “Weather Area Time, Location” form to appear. Start/Stop Time, Heading, and Speed are typed onto the form, while the weather area location may be selected from the map.


    1. Nuclear/Bio/Chem Detonations. Selection brings up the “Scenario Warhead(s) List” form. Clicking on “Add New Warhead/Detonation Time” causes the “Detonation Time, Location” form to appear. The type of warhead is selected from a drop down menu; the altitude and time of the explosion are typed; while the location may be selected from the map.


    1. Intelligence Reports. Selection brings up the “Environment Intelligence Reports” form. Clicking on “Add Intelligence Reports” causes the “Intelligence Report Time, Location” form to appear. The intelligence report events are defined; the time of the report is entered; and, the location is event is selected.


    1. Region Flush – ICBM Alert. Selection brings up the “Region Flush” form where the scenario in which the region flush is to occur is selected. Selection brings up the “Region Flush - ICBM” form where the time of the flush is entered.


    1. Communications Environment. Selection brings up the “Communications Environment” form where the probability of having the communications transmissions intercepted for either or both “Communications Vehicles” and “Non-Communications Vehicles”.


    1. Ground Movement Performance. Selection brings up five choices of “Movement Rate vs.” either “Weather, Terrain, Road Demand, Road Damage or Road Gradient”. Each of these choices allows the user to define the movement rate and related element on a “Table Description” form.


XV. Scenario Evaluation

Often it is necessary to review a specific scenario’s assets and other elements to make certain that the required quantity of certain forces are included or to check the total firepower of both sides etc. To perform these various tasks and to get to this area do the following:

      1. Simply Start JFORCES.

      2. Choose the scenario and database in which an aspect of Scenario Evaluation is required.

      3. Under “Systems Controls” select “Mission Planner”. Select the “Scenario Defn” (that appears on the Master Control menu) -> “Scenario Evaluation”.

Below are the steps necessary to obtain the different values and quantities of these elements in the selected scenario: (Note: Some of the elements may be edited but many can NOT be changed or altered – just reviewed.)


        1. Ascertain the number of airbases for each side.

          • Choose “Assets By Category”.

          • The number of airbases for both Red and Blue sides are listed on the “Scenario Asset List (By Category)” form.


        1. Determine the SAM Sites on the Red side.


        1. Check on a specific Blue aircraft in a scenario.


        1. Find the TO&E for a specific ground organization.


        1. Determine the location of a specific target.


F. Display a specific route.


XVI. Create Air Package.


Often it is necessary to create air packages for a specific scenario. An Air Package is a specific grouping of different aircraft in varying quantities to perform a defined mission. These aircraft work in concert to complete the mission. To create the air package do the following:

    1. Start JFORCES.

    2. Choose the scenario and database in which the air package applies.

    3. Under “Systems Controls” select “Mission Planner”.

    4. Then again select the “Systems Controls” -> “DBA” -> “DB Prototyping” -> “Plan Air Packages” causing the “AIR PACKAGES” form to appear with all the current air packages listed.

    5. Click on the “Define New Package” bar and the “AIR PACKAGE” form appears.

    6. Type in the Name of the Air Package and “Accept”. The “PACKAGE ELEMENTS” form appears.

    7. Selection of “Add” causes the “EDIT” form to appear.

    8. Fill in or select the pertinent data for one element of the air package (e.g. Type aircraft, Number of aircraft, Essentially, Mission, Role, and Duration) and Save. This causes the PACKAGE ELEMENTS” form to appear with this element added.

    9. More elements are added in a similar manner.


XVII. Controlling JFORCES Elements.

It is necessary to be able to control the elements once a scenario has been created and refined. To get to these controls:

  1. Start JFORCES.

  2. Choose the scenario and database that applies.

  3. Under “Scenario Controls” select the category of controls that is to be used (e.g. “Umpire, Blue Controls, Red Controls and Ground Force Controls”).


BLUE CONTROLS EXAMPLES:


      1. Kill an Asset – Red BMP.

  1. Select “Umpire” -> “Asset Controls” -> “Kill Red Assets” and “Kill Controls” form appears.

  2. Select “List” button and “BMP” to fill in form.

  3. Click on “Confirm Kill” bar to complete the kill.


      1. Add a Blue Asset – B-1B.

  1. Select “Umpire” -> “Asset Controls” -> “Add New Asset” and “ASSET CREATION” form appears.

  2. Click on “Query DB” bar and select B-1B.

  3. Fill in remaining portions of form and select “Create” to complete Blue B-1B asset addition.


      1. Check on Red Units in a Specific Area.

1.


      1. Insert a Bio/Chem area.

  1. Select “Umpire” -> “Modify Environment” -> “Biochem” and the “Chemical Insertion” form appears.

  2. Insert location and burst altitude if applicable and “Enter Data”.


      1. Scramble a specific aircraft.

  1. Select “Blue Controls” -> Operational Controls” -> “Scramble Aircraft”.

  2. Click on the airbase icon on the Map and the “Status Board” form for that base appears.

  3. Click on the specific aircraft that is to be scrambled and the “SCRAMBLE CONTROL” form appears.

  4. Fill in required sections of form and “Send”.


      1. Direct an aircraft to Return to Base.

  1. Select “Blue Controls” -> Operational Controls” -> “Asset Control”.

  2. “ASSET CONTROLS” form appears.

  3. On form select the asset – either from selection on the Map or from List of assets.

  4. Under “Select Motion Type” activate “Return to Base” and click on “Return”.


      1. Define the formation for a Blue flight of aircraft.

  1. Select “Blue Controls” -> Operational Controls” -> “Define Flights”.

  2. “Define Formation” form appears.

  3. Fill in the appropriate blanks on form and activate the data to complete the selected formation for the Blue flight.


      1. Control the Engagement of an interceptor aircraft against an attacking bomber.

  1. Select “Blue Controls” -> Operational Controls” -> “Engagement Control”.

  2. “Engagement Monitor” form appears.

  3. Under “Asset” menu, select “Control Aircraft”.

  4. Click on the interceptor that is on the Map screen and the name of the aircraft is displayed on the “Engagement Monitor” form along with the current pertinent data applicable to the interceptor (e.g. Heading, Speed, Altitude, Lat/Long, Fuel State, etc). The interceptor icon changes color.

  5. Under “Target” at the top of the form, select “Select New Target”.

  6. Click on the airborne target appearing on the Map screen to implement the engagement. The target icon changes color.

  7. The target aircraft data now appears on the form.

  8. Under “Commands” menu select “Auto Intercept” – to allow the automatic intercept and engagement of that target by the interceptor previously chosen.

  9. Under “ROE” select the desired tasking for this engagement (e.g. Engage, ID or Kill on Visual).

  10. The intercept and/or engagement commences and the progress of the intercept continues to with the pertinent data appearing on the form.


      1. Direct an Air-to-Ground attack by a Blue Bomber against a Red Target.

  1. Select “Blue Controls” -> Operational Controls” -> “Air-to-Ground”.

  2. “Air to Ground Control” form appears.

  3. Under “List” drop down menu, select the Blue bomber wanted - causing the data for this platform to appear on the form (e.g. Lat/Long and Range and Heading to Target).

  4. Click on “Select Target Area from Map” and click on the desired Red target. This causes target location data to appear on the form.

  5. Finally, click on “Enter Command” to implement the attack.



      1. Perform (control) an Air Refueling mission.

  1. Select “Blue Controls” -> Operational Controls” -> “Midair Refueling”.

  2. “Refuel Controls” form appears.

  3. Select aircraft to be refueled by choosing the aircraft from the menu under the “List” button in the “Customer Data” section of the form. The data for this aircraft appears on the form.

  4. Select the tanker aircraft that is to execute the refueling. The data for this tanker appears on the form.

  5. Click on “Enter Command” to commence the Tanker mission.


      1. Assign C2 to a specific asset and C2 unit.

  1. Select “Blue Controls” -> Operational Controls” -> “Set C2 Assignments”.

  2. “C2 Assignment Controls” form appears.

  3. Select asset to assign the C2 function to a specific unit or asset by choosing the asset from the menu under the “List” button in the “Asset Data” section of the form. The data for this asset now appears on the form.

  4. Select from the menu under the “C2 Site” button that is to be assigned as the C2 node for the asset. The data for this C2 site appears on the form.

  5. Click on “Enter Command” to activate the C2 assignment.


      1. Setup an ASW area of search.

  1. Select “Blue Controls” -> Operational Controls” -> “ASW”.

  2. The “ASW Control” form appears.

  3. Select asset to perform the ASW search function by choosing the asset from the menu under the “List” button on the form. The data for this asset now appears on the form.

  4. Click on the “Pick the Search Region From Map” bar and select the search region on the Map screen. Lat/Long of the region now appears on the form.

  5. Type the other data on the form (e.g. Search Width, Speed, Altitude, Time etc) and click on “Enter Command” to implement the search.


      1. Establish a SAM Safe Passage Corridor.

  1. Select “Blue Controls” -> Operational Controls” -> “Set Safe Passage Corridors”.

  2. The “Set Safe Passage Corridors ” form appears.

  3. Select the Site to perform the SAM by choosing the site from the menu under the “List” button on the form. The location data for this asset now appears on the form.

  4. Type the other required data on the form (e.g. Speed, Heading, Altitude, IFFN etc) and click on “Enter Command” to implement the search.


      1. Launch an ASAT.

  1. Select “Blue Controls” -> Operational Controls” -> “Launch ASAT”.

  2. The “ASAT” form appears.

  3. Select the Target for the ASAT mission by choosing the target from the menu under the “List” button on the form. The target data for this now appears on the form.

  4. To assign the launch Lat/Long, click on the “Pick Launch Location from Map” and select the location from the Map screen.

  5. Finally, click on “Launch ASAT” button to implement the launch mission.


      1. Evaluate a specific Blue Air Package.

  1. Select “Blue Controls” -> Operational Controls” -> “Evaluate Air Packages”.

  2. The “Air Package” form appears.

  3. Select the type of air package and the data for these air packages appear on the lower portion of the form.

  4. The “Mission Location” of the air package may also be selected from the Map - causing the Lat/Long to appear on the form.

  5. This data allows for the evaluation of the air package.


P. View Blue Intelligence Reports.

  1. Select “Blue Controls” -> Operational Controls” -> “View Intel Reports”.

  2. The “Intel Reports” form appears.

  3. The initial Intel Report either appears on the form or may be displayed by selecting a specific intelligence icon (via “Select Intel icon).

  4. Subsequent reports may be review by selecting “Go to Next Report” bar.


RED CONTROLS EXAMPLES:


A. Kill an Asset – Blue AFIV-1.

  1. Select “Umpire” -> “Asset Controls” -> “Kill Blue Assets” and “Kill Controls” form appears.

  2. Select “List” button and “AFIV-1” to fill in form.

  3. Click on “Confirm Kill” bar to complete the kill.


    1. Add a Red Asset – BEAR-H1.

  1. Select “Umpire” -> “Asset Controls” -> “Add New Asset” and “ASSET CREATION” form appears. Make certain the “Red” side is activated.

  2. Click on “Query DB” bar and select BEAR-H1.

  3. Fill in remaining portions of form and select “Create” to complete BEAR-H1 asset addition.


    1. Check on Red Units in a Specific Area.

1.


    1. Scramble a specific Red aircraft.

  1. Select “Red Controls” -> “Scramble Aircraft”.

  2. Click on the airbase icon on the Map and the “Status Board” form for that base appears.

  3. Click on the specific aircraft that is to be scrambled and the “SCRAMBLE CONTROL” form appears.

  4. Fill in required sections of form and “Send”.


    1. Direct a Red aircraft to Change Heading.

  1. Select “Red Controls” -> “Asset Control”.

  2. “ASSET CONTROLS” form appears.

  3. On form select the asset – either from selection on the Map or from List of assets.

  4. Under “Select Motion Type” activate “Change Heading”.

  5. Under the “Command Parameters” section on the form, click on the compass to establish the new desired heading.

  6. Click on “Enter Command” to implement the command.


    1. Define the formation for a Red flight of aircraft.

  1. Select “Red Controls” -> “Define Flights”.

  2. “Define Formation” form appears.

  3. Fill in the appropriate blanks on form and activate the data to complete the selected formation for the Red flight.


    1. Control the Engagement of a Red interceptor aircraft against an attacking Blue bomber.

  1. Select “Red Controls” -> “Engagement”.

  2. “Engagement Monitor” form appears.

  3. Under “Asset” menu, select “Control Aircraft”.

  4. Click on the interceptor that is on the Map screen and the name of the aircraft is displayed on the “Engagement Monitor” form along with the current pertinent data applicable to the interceptor (e.g. Heading, Speed, Altitude, Lat/Long, Fuel State, etc). The interceptor icon changes color.

  5. Under “Target” at the top of the form, select “Select New Target”.

  6. Click on the airborne target appearing on the Map screen to implement the engagement. The target icon changes color.

  7. The target aircraft data now appears on the form.

  8. Under “Commands” menu select “Auto Intercept” – to allow the automatic intercept and engagement of that target by the interceptor previously chosen.

  9. Under “ROE” select the desired tasking for this engagement (e.g. Engage, ID or Kill on Visual).

  10. The intercept and/or engagement commences and the progress of the intercept continues to with the pertinent data appearing on the form.


    1. Direct an Air-to-Ground attack by a Red Bomber against a Blue Target.

  1. Select “Red Controls” -> Operational Controls” -> “Air-to-Ground”.

  2. “Air to Ground Control” form appears.

  3. Under “List” drop down menu, select the Red bomber wanted - causing the data for this platform to appear on the form (e.g. Lat/Long and Range and Heading to Target).

  4. Click on “Select Target Area from Map” and click on the desired Red target. This causes target location data to appear on the form.

  5. Finally, click on “Enter Command” to implement the attack.


    1. Perform (control) a Red Air Refueling mission.

  1. Select “Red Controls” -> “Midair Refueling”.

  2. “Refuel Controls” form appears.

  3. Select aircraft to be refueled by choosing the aircraft from the menu under the “List” button in the “Customer Data” section of the form. The data for this aircraft appears on the form.

  4. Select the tanker aircraft that is to execute the refueling. The data for this tanker appears on the form.

  5. Click on “Enter Command” to commence the Tanker mission.


    1. Launch a Red ASAT.

  1. Select “Red Controls” -> “Launch ASAT”.

  2. The “ASAT” form appears.

  3. Select the Target for the ASAT mission by choosing the target from the menu under the “List” button on the form. The target data for this now appears on the form.

  4. To assign the launch Lat/Long, click on the “Pick Launch Location from Map” and select the location from the Map screen.

  5. Finally, click on “Launch ASAT” button to implement the launch mission.


    1. Abort Mission a Red Mission.

  1. Select “Red Controls” -> “Abort Mission”.

  2. A small form appears with the option to select “Abort Current Mission”.

  3. Select this option.


Q. Drop Red Bomb on Blue Target.

  1. Select “Red Controls” -> “Drop Bomb”.

  2. A “Drop Bomb Controls” form appears. Select Target to bomb from either list or from Map.

  3. Type the Lat/Long and Detonation Altitude of the Bomb Drop.

  4. Select type of Bomb – Nuclear or Chemical.


    1. Learn Red Airbase Status.

  1. Select “Red Controls” -> “Red Status” -> “Red Airbase Status”.

  2. A “Status Board”” form appears with a listing of all Red airbases.

  3. Clicking on one of the bases brings up another Status Board with the alert and operational status of the individual Red aircraft assigned to that base.

S. Display Red Jamming.

  1. Select “Red Controls” -> “Jamming”.

  2. Selection brings up a small form with the three types of jamming listed (Smart, CW, Chaff). Each or all may be selected and will appear on the map when implemented.


    1. Activate Specific Individual Types of Red Jamming.

  1. Select “Red Controls” -> “Individual Jamming” causing the “Jamming Controls” form to appear.

  2. Select the Asset for the Jamming mission by choosing the asset from the menu under the “List” button on the form. The asset data now appears on the form.

  3. Each or all three types of jamming may be turned on or off. A “Confirm?” form must be OK’ed in order to set that specific jammer.


U. Command a Red Jettison.

  1. Select “Red Controls” -> “Jettison” causing the “Jettison Control” form to appear.

  2. Under the “List” drop down menu, select the type of asset wanted - causing the data for this platform to appear on the form (e.g. Type, Tail #, Call Sign, Sim ID – along with the current Lat/Long of the asset).

  3. Finally, click on “Enter Jettison Command” to implement the jettison action.


GROUND FORCE CONTROLS EXAMPLES:


A. To Define a Ground Engagement Area and FEBA.

  1. Under “Scenario Controls”, select “Ground Force Controls” -> “Engagement” -> “Area Ground Engagement”.

  2. This brings up the “Area Ground Engagement” form.

  3. Three options exist on this form:

    1. “Select Engagement Locations from Map” = allows the user to define or set the Engagement area – via a white outlined rectangle - on the map screen.

    2. “Define FEBA on Map” = allows the user to “draw” or define the FEBA via a white line.

    3. “Command Engagement” = is active once the FEBA is defined and allows the user to commence the engagement of the ground forces.


B. Control an Artillery Mission.


  1. Under “Scenario Controls”, select “Ground Force Controls” -> “Engagement” -> “Artillery Mission”.

  2. This brings up the “Artillery Mission” form on which the user is presented with several options for firing artillery by either the Red or Blue side against the other side (side is selected by picking the side at the top of the form). Note: the White side is also presented on the form but is seldom used.

    1. The Mission Type is selected from three types: Barrage, Indirect, & Direct.

    2. The Artillery Firing Unit is selected from the Map after first picking the “Select Unit” button.

    3. The Target of the artillery firing is selected from the Map after first picking the “Select Target” button.

    4. Other specific firing data is defined by sliding scales on the form:

      • Start Time of the Artillery Fire.

      • Duration of Artillery Fire.

      • Orientation (degrees).

      • Area Length and Depth of the Artillery Fire.

      • Rate of Fire – rounds per minute per gun.

e. Finally, the “Command” button initiates the actions.

C. Command Engagement of Specific ground units.


    1. Under “Scenario Controls”, select “Ground Force Controls” -> “Engagement” -> “Specific Attacker Ground Engagement”.

    2. This brings up the “Ground Engagement Controls” form on which the user is presented with the option to:

    1. Choose the Attacker Side (Red or Blue).

    2. Then, the Red Group and Blue Group to become engaged are selected from the Map screen. The names of the groups appear on the form after selection.

    3. Finally, the “Command Engagement” button initiates the engagement actions.


D. Stop/Halt Ground Engagement.


  1. Under “Scenario Controls”, select “Ground Force Controls” -> “Engagement” -> “Stop Engagement”.

  2. Selection causes the prompt - “PICK COMBAT AREA” to appear on the Main menu (blue area). The area is chosen on the Map screen and the engagement is halted.


E. To Change a Units Posture.


Note: The Posture of a unit is the current formation that a specific unit has assumed – either Admin. March, Tactical March or Engagement.

  1. Under “Scenario Controls”, select “Ground Force Controls” -> “Engagement” -> “Change Posture”.

  2. Selection causes the “Unit Posture Cont” form to appear with a range of data about the unit and various options the user may select or define. The current Geographical and Form-up Locations are listed and can be changed via the choosing the option and following the directions related to the specific action. New Form-up and Posture can be defined by picking on the “Select Form-up Location from Map” and or “Select New Posture” from the drop down menu under this button.

  3. The “Command Change” bar causes the changes to be initiated.


F. To Build a Route and/or Add a Route Leg for a Specific Unit.


  1. Under “Scenario Controls”, select “Ground Force Controls” -> “Route Builder”.

  2. Selection causes the “Route Builder” form to appear with the name, location and form-up data on the unit along with any “route and leg data” applicable to the unit.

  3. The “Form-up” location of the unit may be changed by selecting the “Change Form-up Lat/Long from Map” and picking the location on the Map screen.

  4. A Route or Leg of an existing route for the unit may be defined by selecting “Add Route Leg” and picking the geographical location on the Map. The Speed of travel for each leg may be changed by typing in the speed on the specific leg (e.g. Leg #1).

  5. Once the route and legs have been defined the data may be entered into the simulation by clicking on “Send Route” bar.


G. Define the Unit Levels and/or Assets that graphically appear on the Map.


  1. Under “Scenario Controls”, select “Ground Force Controls” -> “Graphical Controls” -> “Unit Level”.

  2. Selection of “Unit Level” causes the “Unit Level” form to appear with a listing of Unit Levels plus Asset. Each or all of these levels may be activated. Activation causes the icons of all units of this level to appear on the Map.


H. Cause a Range Indicator to appear at a specific location on the Map.

Note: This capability is often used to place a range circle over a specific unit or asset and then used to quickly and visually determine the relative range of other units or places from the asset. .

  1. Under “Scenario Controls”, select “Ground Force Controls” -> “Graphical Controls” -> “Range Indicator”.

  2. Selection of “Range Indicator” option causes the “Range Indicator” form to appear.

  3. Clicking on the “Select Center From Map” and then click on the location on the map.

  4. The desired range of the indicator may also be defined by either selecting the 1, 10, 100, or 500NM buttons or using the sliding scale on the form.




T0 BE CONTINUED - Many, many more user tasks.

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