The Army analytical community has very few tools that can model Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance.  The future combat system is being developed using the significant tradeoff of situational awareness for rolled armor.  Since we don’t have one model that can help us evaluate the entire Joint C4ISR process we are forced to use niche models that do specific things well and try to connect numerous analytical data points to make sense of the whole.


Joint Force Operational Readiness Combat Effectiveness Simulation (JFORCES) is a simulation environment that was designed to allow seamless integration and assured interoperability among the functions represented by the wide range of legacy niche models.  JFORCES provides the application and communication infrastructure to efficiently and economically reuse models and subroutines within a common simulation environment:

·        JFORCES provides object oriented data management tools that map the live, virtual and constructive weapons, sensors and communications assets (systems, subsystems and components) used in military C4ISR operations into various scenario executions. 

·        JFORCES offers a full range of operator-friendly and operationally familiar Pre-simulation tools to support N-sided initial force structuring, initial asset and organizational unit deployment and lay-down, initial posturing, definition of strategic and tactical objectives, individual and organizational unit mission and route planning, coordination, and situation monitoring in accordance with Joint

·        JFORCES then provides CORBA-like services, rapid prototyping, and two-way message exchanges that allow operators to assume directing and controlling functions for scenario assets, using either live, fielded tactical system interfaces, or interactive working prototypes of controls/displays provided by the simulation environment.






JFORCES is a Government-owned simulation support environment implemented around a message-passing EXECutive offering CORBA or CORBA-like services, including inter-process communication and network management interfaces for real-time, distributed, parallel processing.  EXECutives at each network node are used as a gateway/router in distributed or distributed parallel processing simulation executions.  The JFORCES environment provides a robust set of analyst-oriented or operator-oriented interfaces for pre-simulation configuration, scenario generation, runtime controls and post-process analysis.  A Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) statistical package is fully integrated that provides a robust library of statistical routines augmented with presentation-level graphics and report generation capabilities.  JFORCES User Information Management System (UIMS) offers an embedded Geographic/Cartographic Information System and provides the tools for easy and efficient entity creation, scenario generation, archive management, application software and hardware system configuration and supports rapid prototyping of interactive interfaces to situational displays, virtual object interfaces and simulation controls.



JFORCES is a systems analysis and engineering, acquisition support, C4ISR and wargaming architecture.  It has successfully supported interactive, real-time or faster execution of a wide range of scenarios including North American Air Defense vs. air breathing threats (bombers and air- or submarine-launched cruise missiles).  It has shown its agility in managing scaling, aggregation and fidelity issues in executing Low Intensity Conflict, Theater Missile Defense (TMD) and Global Protection Against Limited Strikes (GPALS). It has performed executions at the platform level for Soviet Civil War, Operation Desert Storm, J-8 Southwest Asia and Northeast Asia Major Theaters of War (MTW), and other theater-level joint force scenarios.  One objective of the JFORCES design is the enterprise-wide representation of systems development life cycles, offering continuity and consistency of parameter values from design, to field testing, to operation, with feed-back loops in the simulation environment attending iterations of the spiral design, systems engineering and operational analysis processes.


Superior performance in speed of execution, higher granularity in platform, system and component-level deterministic representation, increased functionality and variable fidelity is achieved through implementation of object-oriented applications. The JFORCES implementation is compliant with the DoD High-level Architecture (HLA) standard and is message and protocol adaptable...that is, it is capable of interfacing with virtual nodes using the DoD’s Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) Protocol Data Units (PDUs), as only one of a number of message management options.  Able to emulate real systems’ internal and external message structures in format, content and rate of presentation, JFORCES offers off-the-shelf, low-overhead capability to integrate, constructive models, manned simulators and live systems in real-time executions without filters, interpreters or major data transformations.  This is achieved mainly as a result of integration of the “best-of-the-best” validated legacy parameters, algorithms and subroutines to represent behaviors of military systems rather than integration of models.  


JFORCES provides a cost-effective basis for a simulation architecture that is flexible, modular and open, and supports a broad range of defense functions such as training and readiness, acquisition support, doctrine development, requirements definition and contingency planning. Through its unique, top-down design, JFORCES offers a wide range of application software integration options including data coupling, message coupling, macro-integration of subroutines and algorithms as well as confederation of autonomous nodes.  The JFORCES environment currently incorporates, without transliteration, over 480,000 lines of Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) and government-furnished software originally written in C, FORTRAN, PASCAL, and SIMSCRIPT languages. 


Modularity, flexibility and efficiency characterize the JFORCES design.  Inherent in its design is its ability to exploit and conserve computational and bandwidth resources through the use of tiered, hierarchical network management structures.  Based on demonstrated capability to execute real-time or faster scenarios, involving high fidelity, platform-level representation of tens of thousands of entities, JFORCES represents a near-term, off-the-shelf solution to the scaling problems associated with joint, theater-level exercises and mission rehearsals. The JFORCES architecture accommodates simulation activities spanning the spectrum of conflict, from entity-level of detail to full theater-level and campaign-level functionality of weapons, sensors and communication systems.


JFORCES has been developed over a 17-year period by both warfighters and intelligence professionals.  The Air and Army National Guard currently sponsor JFORCES.  It has been used by NRO, NSA, DIA the Air Force as both an ISR tool and s sim-stim wrap-around tool for the Air Force.  Its extensible architecture can pull together models written in disparate code.  It can easily input or output many forms of real-world data types and message formats.  Its scenario generation interface has been a leader in the field and explored by both the JSIMS and JWARS offices because of its ease of use.  JFORCES can be used in a stand-alone mode or in a larger simulation federation.  It can be run on a laptop.


JFORCES is a mature simulation support environment that has been developed and successfully applied to support design, development and evaluation of military command, control, communications and intelligence (C3I) components, subsystems, systems and architectures.  JFORCES incorporates state-of-the-art features and paradigms such as object-oriented design, distributed parallel processing, message passing in shared memory, rapid prototyping and open-system, standard-compliant software development methods and practices.


At the center of the simulation support environment is a simulation EXECutive that is used to integrate or confederate software applications and to control simulation execution in distributed and/or parallel processing configurations. The EXECutive currently in use is based on government-furnished legacy software comprised of the DoD National Test Bed (NTB) Simulation Executive, with enhancements delivered to the government under the Air Defense Initiative Simulation for Command & Control (ADISC2) program.  The current version of the EXECutive operates under LINUX 7.x/8.x (currently preferred commercial implementation on RedHat) operating system and may be viewed as a mature alternative to the DMSO RunTime Interface (RTI), inasmuch as it provides essentially the same standard-compliant services and may be used in federations to provide inter-process communications with other HLA federates. This implementation uses EXECutives at each network node as “intelligent virtual hubs”...multi-function backbone application gateways that provide switching and routing services to logically layered clusters of live objects, virtual simulators, and constructive simulation hosts, as well as to other nodes.



Past Relevant Experience

JFORCES has been used by numerous military and intelligence agencies to explore a myriad of problem sets.



      The Air Defense Initiative Simulation for Command and Control (ADISC2) was first developed and delivered to the Government by Martin Marietta Corporation (MMC) with unlimited rights of ownership and distribution under contract #F30602-87-D-0089, with associated task orders.  The original ADISC2 baseline was tested, accepted by the Government, and delivered, in April, 1990.  Martin Marietta Denver Aerospace Corporation provided multiple upgrades under Engineering Change Orders from April, through September, 1992.  This included development of new, joint service air/ground/naval, theater- and campaign-level representations for delivery under International Trade Agreement Regulations (ITAR) to the Egyptian Ministry of Defense after Operation Desert Storm/Desert Thunder.  After September of 1992, due to Government and Martin Marietta Corporate reorganizations, the ADISC2 software and configuration baseline support was lost.




      In an effort to restore the simulation framework and re-establish the configuration baseline, the Wisconsin Air National Guard (WIANG) Volk Field Combat Readiness Training Center (CRTC) Air Combat Maneuvering Instrumentation (ACMI) Range, contacted Rome Labs and the Air Force Electronic Systems Command (ESC/XRP) to obtain the surviving recordings of ADISC2 baseline software. 


      WIANG then provided the source code to members of the original ADISC2 Development Team. Under the direction of Lonnie Fouty, the ADISC2 Program Manager, and designing software architect, this team was reconstituted and is now employed by the 3D Pipeline Simulation Corporation (3DPS).  Under contract to WIANG, this team successfully restored the lost baseline in compliance with existing and emerging DoD and industry standards, delivered and installed an enhanced version called the Force Operational Readiness Combat Effectiveness Simulation (JFORCES) to the Volk Field CRTC, in 1995.  In the ensuing years, this team has provided Operations and Maintenance support to the WIANG, developed and demonstrated interfaces to instrumented live air and ground assets through digital ACMI and PCDS links, including successful support of exercises such as GLOBAL-PATRIOT, in the fall of 1997, and CYBER SWORD, in 1999. 


      The 3DPS JFORCES Development Team has continually maintained and enhanced the JFORCES configuration baseline at Volk Field through concurrent contracted efforts performed for participating organizations in the WIANG JIST, CRTC Working Group and JFORCES Users Group, chaired by the WIANG staff.  Substantial re-engineering efforts were conducted under the auspices of the Air Force Studies & Analysis Agency (AFSAA) and the DoD Office of Space Architect (OSA) during FY 1996/1997.  Chemical/Biological Warfare enhancements and new weapon and force structure representations were developed and used in support of the Deeply Buried and Hardened Target Defeat IPT studies under a TRW subcontract.  JFORCES was also used by the OSA in support of MILSATCOM and Launch-on-Demand Architecture Technology Demonstrations (ADTs).


      In 1998, improved versions of the JFORCES baseline 2.0 were delivered to the Naval Air Warfare Center/Airplane Division at Pax River NAS for use in the Crewstation Laboratory for support of the Visualization Architecture Technology (VAT) Program.  Under this effort, JFORCES interfaces with DII-COE and GGCM were developed and demonstrated.


      In 1999, JFORCES version 2.1, including the Radar Analysis Program (RAP), was delivered to the 353rd Combat Training Squadron at Eielson AFB, Alaska, for support of COPE THUNDER training exercises and to 11th AF/ALCOM in Elmendorf AFB for support of NORTHERN EDGE exercises.  Later that year, JFORCES was delivered to the Naval Surface Warfare Center/Dahlgren and used to support the Land Attack Experiment (LAE).


      In 2000, JFORCES was used by ARMY/SMDC in support of ORD development for Space Satellite Control/Negation.  It was selected by the NRO as the simulation testbed framework for concept evaluation, system engineering support, mission analysis and presentation of advanced ISR concepts.  It will be used by DTRA as a modification called Nuclear JFORCES (NJFORCES) as a SIOP/RISOP development tool used for analysis of risk to conventional JFORCES and national defense associated with nuclear draw-down and studies associated with counter-proliferation of nuclear weapons.


      JFORCES has been successfully used by the Joint Precision Strike Testbed (JPSD) Program in the Topographic Engineering Facility (TEC) at Ft. Belvoir, VA.  The diagram below indicates one of the integration configurations developed for the JPSD Program Office.



      JFORCES was also used by the JPSD as a scenario generator and simulation driver for the NRO National Wargaming System (NWARS) and provides the integration framework for assured seamless interoperability between NWARS, GCCS-A and ADOCS software applications.



      Also this year, 3DPS funded an Internal Research & Development (IR&D) effort that ported the UNIX-based version of the JFORCES configuration baseline to PC platforms operating under the LINUX operating system.  This effort involved re-engineering of the JFORCES database to employ POSTGRES (an industry-standard GNU freeware DBMS product) with implementation of ODBC and SQL standards.  This provided full DBMS functionality, enhanced adaptability with respect to INGRES, ORACLE and SYBASE data exchange, improved supportability and eliminated the previous dependency on COTS DBMS and the associated commercial licensing costs.


      The LINUX port also involved a badly needed and long-overdue re-engineering of the JFORCES GUI and Animation/Graphics Module.  This provided compliance with de facto graphics industry OpenGL standard, enhanced registration of DTED/DFED (Level 0 to Level 5) cartographic data with icons and bitmap overlays used in JFORCES executions, improved adaptability and supportability, and eliminated the previous dependency on COTS animation/graphics products and associated commercial licensing costs.



JFORCES is owned by the National Guard Bureau and is used by the Combat Readiness Training Centers (CRTCs) to provide scenario generation and constructive simulation support to live training and exercise events.  The diagram below illustrates the configuration of the architecture used at the Volk Field ANGB, Camp Douglas, WI.


JFORCES Adaptability to Task


JFORCES was developed as an architecture to ensure seamless interoperability and to enable easy, correct and cost-effective reuse of legacy software applications.  Its design includes rapid prototyping tools, on-line debugging tools, data management utilities that support rapid and relatively easy creation and restructuring of relational data tables and structures as well as enabling import/export of data between POSTGRES and commercial databases such as ORACLE, SYBASE and INGRES.  JFORCES design incorporates a fully-functional analytical module that allows analysts, system engineers, military operator-users to specify collection requirements and to mine data relevant to Measures of Effectiveness (MOEs) and Measures of Performance (MOPs) established for various analyses, Advanced Concept Technology Demonstrations (ACTDs) and system engineering experiments.


Because of its unique system development requirements to support engineering analyses and training range activities involving the seamless integration and emerging of live and virtual assets into running constructive scenarios, the JFORCES implementation provides many features such as dynamic creation of constructive objects, ability to perform two-way hand-overs between live, virtual and constructive entities in real-time, interactive scenario executions, thereby turning directing and controlling functions for these constructive objects over to live operators, ability to log and process collected data reflecting both live system and operator performance metrics for simulation data calibration and for enhanced engineering analysis.  JFORCES ability to emulate standard messages used by live tactical systems has made it possible to easily and economically be used as a source-sink simulation interface to a wide range of live tactical systems in support of joint operations and system integration experiments.   The table below describes timelines required to achieve assured inter-operability and legacy reuse.





JFORCES supports simulation of a wide range of distinct classes of sensors using high fidelity, high resolution, deterministic representations at first-principle physics level.  Attachment A to this white paper presents a table that describes each class as it is currently supported within the JFORCES simulation framework.  JFORCES uses these in multi-sensor/multi-source scenarios as sensor payloads for ground-based, shipboard, airborne and space based platforms with exact parametric values to represent instances of current and sensor systems/components used by civilian organizations and major military powers.  JFORCES also maintains a number of government-furnished tracker-correlators and representations of real and postulated future sensor fusion processes. 


The diagram below presents a typical engagement sequence involving interactions between a target object that first presents a signature that can be acquired by a sensor.  This flow of data attending the process of events is managed by the JFORCES EXECutive in a manner as to allow emulation of messages (true in content, format and rate of presentation) that may be processed either by constructive, virtual or live digital systems. JFORCES supports Interface Control Documents (ICDs) that contain all data required to correctly format TADIL A, B, J, OTH-GOLD, TIBS/TRAP/TRE and USMTF messages as well as a wide range of other standard messages required to correctly interface with most live, tactical military weapons, sensors and communications systems.


JFORCES also has developed, or seamlessly integrated applications, that allow correct and proper exploitation of parametric values contained within the digital data fields of each message type in the context of military missions and operations at all echelons.  By correctly modeling, tagging and logging these inter-process message exchanges, JFORCES is able to simulate both ground truth and n-sided perception views to support C4ISR system engineering and engineering analyses The illustration below represents a typical configuration of the JFORCES architecture as may be used to support Level I-IV fusion modeling.

The illustration below shows a typical JFORCES hardware/software configuration that might be used to support Level I-IV fusion modeling.



JFORCES currently provides a fully functional analytical module that allows analysts to efficiently and effectively select and mine scenario data from simulation executions and to easily configure and execute “what if?” excursions from a repeatable reference baseline to examine the contribution of controlled variables to outcomes of military operations.  This is used for both After Action Analysis and for generation of detailed system engineering and operations analysis reports.


JFORCES makes critical inter-process relationships visible to the user/analyst and allows presentation of accurate and correct real-time, interactive controls and situation awareness displays using either the fielded digital workstations that military operators use in peacetime and wartime situations or working prototypes of such fielded or postulated future versions of such systems as they are developed within the JFORCES environment.




The JFORCES simulation has been used extensively in C4ISR training and exercise support.


The JFORCES simulation support environment has been successfully applied to a wide range of systems engineering and design projects including: 

1)      Detailed trade studies,

2)      Operations analyses with man-in-the-loop, software-in-the-loop and hardware-in-the loop,

3)      Executions of high-level, end-to-end scenarios for end-user training and engineering analyses,

4)      Concept development and initial system design studies, and

5)      The evaluation of architecture, system and subsystem concepts. 

JFORCES technology has been successfully applied to various battle management and C3I problems in both strategic and tactical arenas.  The JFORCES SSE has been used to examine various aspects of joint military operations involving space, air, naval and ground units and systems, with thousands of complex objects being represented in real-time, interactive scenario executions.   Leverage of the JFORCES legacy simulation framework can produce dramatic improvement in systems engineering processes, at a fraction of the cost and time normally associated with such efforts.


The design of the JFORCES architecture allows even the non-programmer to create scenarios from scratch.  By using various application primitives provided by the SSE (i.e.. pre-defined objects, routes, archived rules of engagement/operation, selections from libraries of functional subroutines), the simulation environment could easily be configured to specific analytical or user-defined requirements. This flexibility and ease of use is also enhanced by archived dynamics algorithms (represented at varying levels of fidelity and granularity) and archived data collection/processing and configuration specifications.


Rapid prototyping of operator interfaces is supported by a Graphical User Interface (GUI) that provides services to the user during pre-simulation, runtime and post-processing sessions.  Interactive graphics and animation tools allow the user to tailor controls, displays and data entry interfaces so that emulation or near-emulation of operationally familiar tasks and procedures can be achieved during scenario execution.  In Pre-simulation mode, the onerous and often artificial tasks of data entry associated with object creation, instantiation of initial states (such as deployment), and parameter definition can be made invisible to the user with the creation of task-oriented interfaces.  This feature of the SSE allows simulation configuration and scenario generation tasks to be accomplished by non-programmer users as they simply perform the tasks that they have been trained for in the "real" world.


Tailored interfaces for many military operations already exist within the JFORCES environment.  These interfaces assist the user in performing scenario generation-tasks such as:

1)      Force structuring, deployment,

2)      Route planning for air, ground and naval elements,

3)      Construction and tasking of space-based assets,

4)      Preview of mission packages including sensor coverage and tactical concepts,

5)      Target-weapon pairing,

6)      Attack planning and management,

7)      Defense planning and management,

8)      Sustainment/logistics and support element coordination,

9)      And operations/mission planning.


Battle management and C4ISR experiments and evaluations can be conducted using JFORCES capabilities to construct, edit and archive alternative sets of Rules of Engagement (ROEs) and Rules of Operation (ROOs) that may be used to control object behavior and performance during computer-controlled executions.  The user may use interactive pre-simulation interface utilities that allow construction of complex rules from stimulus-response templates to be used in various scenario executions.  During such executions, JFORCES provides the human operators with the ability to interact with the simulation to override these rules (to take control of selected assets/objects from the computer) and to return control to the computer to resume normal execution of pre-defined rules in the same scenario.  These capabilities allow the careful, controlled examination of existing or candidate battle management concepts and to quantify the sensitivities on engagement outcome and mission performance with respect to rule changes.


JFORCES supports the rapid and relatively easy creation of an accurate operational baseline of current theater-level sensor, weapons, communications, intelligence and threat capabilities employed within friendly and enemy tactical doctrines.  JFORCES allows rapid creation of controlled excursions from repeatable baselines to support cost-effective evaluation of alternative C4ISR concepts that involve alternative data flow and processing options, Rules of Operation and Rules of Engagement, variable architectures and system configurations, increased or reduced levels of automation, and many other constructs. Thus, JFORCES enables the rapid design and deployment of future systems to counter the continuing emergence of increasingly lethal and stealthy threats.  Employment of JFORCES capabilities in generation and operation of end-to-end virtual working prototypes allows rapid assessment of defense systems and operational concepts in support of enhanced military acquisition processes.


For additional information on JFORCES or to arrange for a briefing, call:


Lonnie Fouty, JFORCES Program Manager


Phone #: (540) 720-6818 or (540) 257-7752 Mobile

Internet #: Lonnie.fouty@ngc.com or lfouty@aol.com

JFORCES web page:  www.JFORCES.info


Two Attachments are provided below:


Attachment A identifies the classes of sensors currently represented in the JFORCES simulation architecture.  These representations may exist at different levels of user-selectable fidelity and may be configured to address specific analytical requirements of mathematical rigor and resolution granularity in tailored scenario executions.  The data parameters used in each scenario may vary according to security classification and local usage to meet the unique requirements of a wide range of JFORCES users.


Attachment B describes the range of archived JFORCES scenarios that may be edited and modified to meet specific analytical requirements.  Within these scenarios, vignettes and tailored event/process sequences may be constructed to address Measures of Effectiveness (MOEs) and Measures of Performance (MOPs) that may be established in test and experimental designs.