Sensor Type / Modeling Technique

Currently Modeled Sensors of this Type In the UNCLASSIFIED Database

Type 1 (Internal index)

Name: Standard Radar

Description: Radar model based upon standard radar range equation accounting for enemy jamming, standard and manmade (including nuclear) environmental effects, antenna gain patterns in both azimuth and elevation, presented threat signatures at appropriate frequencies, terrain, system specifics including peak and average power, efficiencies, self noise factors, frequencies and bandwidths, scan rates and so forth.

Documentation: ADISC2 Programmer's Manual, Sensors

Source: Standard radar range equations

Validated: Mitre, 1991

Quality: Detection Model

Integration capability: Owing to detailed "paint" resolution and accurate rate and format of report this model has been used to drive operator, software and hardware in the loop evaluations. First used in this capability to provide a testbed for alternative air defense workstations at Rome AFB in 1991.

abl_trkg_6space

abl_trkg_targeta

AN/UPD-7 SLARS

awacs

Barlock-B

BIG BIRD

e2c

fps-117

imp awac

jss

Pat_cq/Trk Rad

Pat/Trk Rad

Pat/Trk Rad_spc

srr

STRAIGHT_FL_Aq

Tgt Acq/Trk Rad

TPS-43

TPS-70

Note: Validated data Available only for fps-117, srr and TPS 43 & 70

Type 2 (Internal index)

Name: Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar

Description: Detailed model of the Over-the-horizon Backscatter radar used at Bangor, MN and intended for other deployment. Representation includes details on atmospheric reflection resulting in achievable maximum usable frequency based upon time of day, environment, solar activity (sunspot cycle is included), auroral cap location (modeled dynamically) and nuclear environment.

Documentation: ADISC2 Programmer's Manual, Sensors (very limited - check NORAD J5 for additional documentation).

Source: NORAD J5

Validated: Mitre, 1991

Quality: Detection Model

Integration capability: Never tested, though message format, content and rate of presentation is addressed.

OTH

Note: No validated data for any subsystem listed above.

Type 3 (Internal index)

Name: Passive AntiSubmarine Warfare (ASW) detection sensor.

Description: Simple submarine signal-to-noise detection model. While still in the inventory for quick-look analysis, it's recommended that the NOSC-derived passive ASW model for fixed sites (including SOSOS), or the NOSC-derived mobile passive ASW model for fleet operations, are used when data is available . Both of these models are described below. All of these models are intended to represent the detection component of the ASW model, and as such work in conjunction with the ASW localization models (also described below).

Documentation: ADISC2 Programmer's Manual, Sensors

Source: Unknown

Validated: No

Quality: Simple S/N model

Integration Capability: NA

MAD

SQR 19

SQS 53A

SQS 56

Note: No validated data for any subsystem listed above. This is test data only.

Type 4 (Internal index)

Name: Space Based Radar (SBR) Model

Description: Simple coverage model of space-based radars including first-order signal-to-noise and nadir representation.

Documentation: ADISC2 Programmer's Manual, Sensors

Source: Unknown

Validated: No

Quality: Simple S/N model

Integration Capability: NA

sbradar

Note: No validated data for any subsystem listed above.

Type 5 (Internal index)

Name: Generic Fourth-Root Scaling Radar Model

Description: Simple coverage model of terrestrial and near-earth radars considering only detection range against a target scaled according to the presented cross-section in the appropriate frequency, terrain obstructions, and a first-order representation of threat jamming. The reason for maintaining this model is in many studies the data required for our standard radar was not always available (either because the system was still in development or limited access) and this permitted quick-run analyses to be run in the absence of more detailed representations.

Documentation: ADISC2 Programmer's Manual, Sensors

Source: Unknown

Validated: No

Quality: Simple S/N model

Integration Capability: NA

ALR-46

AN/ASQ-151

APG-63, 70, 71

APQ-110, 120, 126,156

APS-115, 116, 124, 130, 137, 138, 24, 81

APY-1

ASB-7

AVQ-23

AVQ PAVE TRACK

AWG-10A

BPS 15A

jss-2

SPS 10F, 40B 43, 48A 48C, 49, 53, 55, 64, 67

TCS

Note: No validated data for any subsystem listed above.

Type 6 (Internal index)

Name: Bistatic Radar

Description: Representation of bistatic radar sensors based upon the standard radar model described as type 1 but segregating the locations and operational characteristics of the radar transmitters and receivers. Some improvements have been made to this approach based upon the need to more accurately model space-based operations.

Documentation: ADISC2 Programmer's Manual, Sensors

Source: Standard radar equations (Skolnik, et al) initially. Modified by program needs

Validated: Mitre 1991. Changed since to model space operations. No subsequent V&V

Quality: Detection Model

Integration capability: Never tested, though message format, content and rate of presentation is addressed.

bistatic

Bi-static AMTI

Bi-Static GMTI

Note: No validated data for any subsystem listed above. This is test data only.

Type 7 (Internal Index)

Name: AntiSubmarine Warfare (ASW) localization model

Description: Specific model for ASW localization modeling the Magnetic Anomoly Detector (MAD). Unlike all other sensor models, this model incorporates the platform operations (notably the search pattern and height) as well as the sensor's performance characteristics and threat signature profile to determine detection success. Also, unlike other sensor models, the resulting detection is tied closely into the ASW engagement algorithm. Despite the end-to-end operations coverage, the model itself should be classed as a simple operational availability model as opposed to a detailed model appropriate to engineering analysis. The intent of the model was to evaluate the value of this type of ASW to an overall theater or fleet defense, and this it accomplishes.

Documentation: ADISC2 Programmer's Manual, both the sensor and engagement volumes (promarily described in the Engagement volume).

Source: Unknown

Validated: Mitre 1991

Quality: Coverage Model

Integration capability: NA

AQS-13

AQS-13F

BQQ 5

BQS 15

SONOBUOY

Note: No validated data for any subsystem listed above. This is test data only.

Type 8 (internal index)

Name: Electronic Surveillance Measures (ESM)

Description: This model employs the receiver side of the standard radar model (type 1, above) to determine probability of communications detection. The detection determination is relatively detailed, addressing power, frequencies, set noise losses, antenna characteristics, environmental and jamming factors. At this time the stimulus modeling ( the detailed modeling of which targets are transmitting at any given time based upon operational requirements) is not addressed, instead a value is used for typical radiation from any target in specific frequencies throughout the scenario and this value changes only if the system is turned off (e.g. When no engagement is occurring for SAMs). The subsequent identification of detected threats is modeled in a Monte-Carlo approach.

Documentation: ADISC2 Programmer's Manual, Sensors

Source: Standard radar equations (Skolnik, et al)

Validated: Mitre 1991

Quality: Mixed. The sensor model itself can be called a reasonable detailed detection Model, but the environment driving the detections is fairly simple and the target identification model is very simple.

Integration capability: Possible, but never tested.

ESM

Note: No validated data for any subsystem listed above.

Type 9 (Internal Index)

Name: InfraRed Model

Description: Simple coverage model of IR sensors considering detection range against a target scaled according to the presented signature in the appropriate frequency and terrain obstructions. Incorporates representation of detection accuracy based upon pixel resolution and other factors.

Documentation: ADISC2 Programmer's Manual, Sensors

Source: Unknown

Validated: Mitre 1991

Quality: Coverage Model. For a more detailed model see the Detailed SBIRs model (type 17, below). But this is often the better model to used for military utility studies because it doesn't demand detailed lists of sensor tasking.

Integration capability: Possible, but never tested.

FLIR

irs1, 2, 4

irsensor

irspace6spc

irspace_air, _grd, _spc

generic_nmd_sensor

SNOR_EO, EO_2, EO_3, MIL

SNOR_IR, IR_2, IR_3, IR_MIL

SNOR_SAR, SAR_MIL

SNOR_SIGINT

space_optical

spotopt

No validated data for any subsystem listed above.

Type 10 (Internal Index)

Name: Optical Detection Model

Description: Simple coverage model of optical sensors considering detection range against a target scaled according range. Factors include sensor power (compared to unaided eye), smoke, ground clutter (foliage), day/night state and terrain obstructions.

Documentation: ADISC2 Programmer's Manual, Sensors

Source: Unknown

Validated: No

Quality: Coverage Model.

Integration capability: Untested

Optical

RECON

No validated data for any subsystem listed above. This is test data only.

Type 11 (Internal Index)

Name: Mitre-Provided E3 Model

Description: This is a detailed E3 radar model incorporated from Mitre sources. Presumably higher-quality representation of the E3 model (it incorporates modified antenna gain for regions near the tail and has atmospheric refraction and absorption functions). But the purpose of this model was no to simply provide a better E3 model. Instead, ESD wanted to test the claims that models could rapidly be incorporated into JFORCES. So they presented one programmer with this model on the morning of a test day. The model was incorporated by lunch and the inputs and outputs were incorporated seamlessly into our database by the end of the first day. The Mitre representatives spent the next day verifying the model worked identically after incorporation into FORCES as it originally did.

Documentation: Unknown, check ESD

Source: ESD

Validated: Mitre, 1992.

Quality: Detection model, but not important. See description

Integration Capability: This was an integration test. We have never considered using it to drive software or hardware in the loop tests.

etest

No validated data for any subsystem listed above. This is test data only.

Type 12 (Internal Index)

Name: NOSC Active AntiSubmarine Warfare (ASW) Sensor Model

Description: SONAR model of active ASW (e.g. sonobouys) including threat signature (based on platform and speed), propogation losses (range, frequency), underwater reflectance, background noise, gain characteristics and annuli zones (toroidal dead zones around the target).

Documentation: "Regional ASW Model for ADISC2", NOSC, Contract N66001-89-D-0004-14

Source: NOSC report dated Dec 1, 1990, Contract N66001-89-D-0004-14

Validated: Unknown

Quality: Detection Model

Integration Capability: Unknown

actaswtest

No vaildated data for any subsystem listed above. This is test data only.

Type 13 (Internal Index)

Name: NOSC Mobile Active AntiSubmarine Warfare (ASW) Sensor Model

Description: SONAR model mobile ASW model (for active towed arrrays and similar system)

including threat signature (based on platform and speed), propogation losses (range, frequency), underwater reflectance, background noise, gain characteristics and platform self noise.

Documentation: "Regional ASW Model for ADISC2", NOSC, Contract N66001-89-D-0004-14

Source: NOSC report dated Dec 1, 1990, Contract N66001-89-D-0004-14

Validated: Unknown

Quality: Detection Model

Integration Capability: Unknown

mpasaswtest

No validated data for any subsystem listed above. This is test data only.

Type 14 (Internal Index)

Name: NOSC Fixed Active AntiSubmarine Warfare (ASW) Sensor Model

Description: SONAR model fixed ASW model (for SOSUS and similar systems) built around detection success tables incorporating threat signature (based on platform and speed), range, bearing, depth, frequencies.

Documentation: "Regional ASW Model for ADISC2", NOSC, Contract N66001-89-D-0004-14

Source: NOSC report dated Dec 1, 1990, Contract N66001-89-D-0004-14

Validated: Unknown

Quality: Monte-Carlo model. Good as long as the data is available.

Integration Capability: Probably inappropriate for all uses except C2 systems.

newsosus

No validated data for any subsystem listed above. This is test data only

Type 15: (Internal Index)

Name: Generic Ground Detection Model

Description: Simple generic "Cookie-Cutter" representation of ground surveillance systems with monte-carlo approach for target identification

Documentation: None

Source: None

Validated: No and NA

Quality: Coverage Model

Integration Capability: NA

GSR

JSTARS

No validated data for any subsystem listed above

Type 16 (Internal Index)

Name: Fire Finder (Anti Artillery) Radar

Description: Anti Artillery model incorporating subsystem coverage and viewing angles, fire duration and range.

Documentation: None

Source: None

Validated: No

Quality: Coverage Model

Integration Capability: NA

see-fire

No validated data for any subsystem listed above. This is test data only

Type 17 (Internal Index)

Name: Detailed Space Based Infrared Sensor (SBIRS)

Description: This model incorporates a high fidelity model of the focal plane on each SBIR platform incorporating atmospheric dispersion and attenuation, modeling of individual pixels with heat interference between adjacent pixels, sensor slewing and platform jitter, the option of various filtering techniques, onboard angle-only tracking and possible onboard or remote 3D tracker fusion from multiple sensors, and alternative tracking algorithms.

Documentation: detailed_sbir.html

Source: Martin Marrietta Brilliant Eyes Team

Validated: Internal Martin Marietta team validation

Quality: Engineering-level model.

Integration Capability: Heavily used (1991 & 1992) as a software- and hardware-in-the-loop testbed for alternative focalplane filtering techniques, tracker algorithms and physical trackers, multi-sensor fusion correlation software and hardware prototypes.

T_SBIR

No validated data for any subsystem listed above. This is test data only.