RADAR ANALYSIS PROGRAM

(RAP)

 

USER MANUAL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

I. RAP Overview (General)

1.      General

2.      Overlays

3.      Filters

4.      Aircraft Surveillance/Control Tools

5.      Summary

II. PRIMARY AIRCRAFT CONTROL TASKS (General):

A. Identification

1. Specific or Positive ID

2. Less Specific ID

3. General ID

B. Control

1. Close Control

2. Routine Control

 

C. Surveillance

III. Primary RAP Control Tasks

A. Control Tasks (RAP Control Tasks in Italics)

1. ID aircraft.

2. Vector aircraft.

3. Provide relative positions to other air traffic.

4. Control flight parameters of aircraft under control.

5. Track fuel and weapon status of aircraft under control.

6. Ensure flight restrictions in control area are not violated.

7. Observe flight restriction for the control areas.

8. Determine coverage/limitations of other radar sites.

9. Provide flight warnings and advisories as required.

10. Provide altimeter and weather status.

11. Air Emergency assistance.

12. Relay data to other agencies as required.

IV. RAP Control Elements and Forms (w/Figs).

A.     RAP Master Menu

1.      File

a)      Replay Controls

b)      Load Saved Settings

c)      Save Current Settings

d)      FORCES and Live Feeds

2.      Options

a)      Site Filters

b)      Detection Filters

c)      Track Displays

d)      Map Overlays

3.      Help

B.     FORCES\RAP MAP CONTROLS

1.      Clocks

2.      Other Controls

3.      Program

4.      Assets

5.      Projections

6.      Location

7.      Backgrounds

8.      Overlays

9.      Options

10.  Help

V. RAP Operating Instructions.

A.     Starting RAP

B.     Set Up RAP Screen

1.      Choose Site

2.      Choose Color

3.      Select Active Filters

a)      Select Detection Filters

b)      Choose Track Display options

c)      Change Track Color Mode

d)      Configure SID Data Display

e)      Select Map Overlays

f)       Select Labels

g)      Select Sector

h)      Select additional overlays

i)        Select Grids

j)        Select Data Driven Displays for Area

k)     Select Volk

l)        Select SENSOR OVERLAYS

VI. RAP Overlays.

A.     Six types of overlays.

1.      Aircraft “tracks”/radar “returns”.

2.      Depiction of ground objects.

3.      Classification of airborne objects.

4.      Boundaries or special areas.

5.      Grids.

6.      Other Terrain features.

B.     Utilization of overlays with RAP

1.      Overlay Variables.

2.      How overlays are utilized?

a)      Site Filters.

b)      Detection Filters.

c)      Track Displays.

d)      Map Overlays.

VII. Interaction between FORCES and RAP controls.

A.     When in RAP mode and wish to go to FORCES.

a.       Start Local FORCES & Live Feeds”.

b.      Start FORCES Scenario”.

c.       Connect to Ongoing FORCES Scenario”.

B.     When in FORCES mode wish to return to the RAP controls.

C.     Once returned to the RAP mode and wish to return to the FORCES.

VIII. Instructions on how to Utilize RAP in the Performance of Specific Range Control Functions and Tasks.

TBD

 

 

FIGURES TABLE OF CONTENTS

Each Fig. is linked to the corresponding figure in the documentation.

Section I.

1.            Fig. “Map Overlays”

2.            Fig. “Grids”

3.            Fig. “Sensor Filters Range and Azimuth”

Section III

4.            Fig. Beacon Options

5.            Fig. Beacon options under Labels menu

6.            Fig. Individual beacon data listed on “TRACK INFO”

7.            Figs. “Site Filters” to “Site” to “Select Sensor Display Color”

8.            Figs. “Map Overlays” to “Grids” to “Recenter Grids”

9.            Figs. Speed and Heading Indicator selected with Screen track

10.        Fig. “Track Displays” form with “Specify Ind. Track Params” option.

11.        Fig. Labels with Label Tracks Activated

12.        Fig. Screen with Track Labels Activated

13.        Fig. Asset Select

14.        Fig. Distance Arrow on Screen

15.        Fig. Compass on Screen

16.        Fig. Range Boundaries Overlay

Section IV

17.        Fig. Menu

18.        Fig. File Options

19.        Fig. “Select File” menu

20.        Fig. “Save File” menu

21.        Fig. “FORCES and Live Feed”

22.        Fig. Site Menu

23.        Fig. “Change to RAP Interface”

24.        Fig. “Change to FORCES Controls”

25.        Fig. “START SCENARIO”

26.        Fig. “Connect to Ongoing Scenario” form

27.        Fig. Site Filters

28.        Fig. “SENSOR FILTERS” form

29.        Fig. “Sensor Display Color” form

30.        Fig. “Active Filters” form

31.        Fig. “Xponder Filters” bar

32.        Fig. “Xponder Filters” form

33.        Fig. “BOX SELECTION” section

34.        Fig. “COVERAGE FILTER” section

35.        Fig. “ALTITUDE FILTER” section

36.        Fig. “DETECTION AGE” section

37.        Fig. “Detection Filters”

38.        Fig. “TRACK DISPLAY” form

39.        Fig. Screen with Track Boxes activated

40.        Fig. Form with the “Define Box” and Lat/Long coordinates

41.        Fig. Track Labels activated.

42.        Fig. Screen with Track Labels activated

43.        Fig. “TRACK INFO” form

44.        Fig. “Change Track Color Mode”

45.        Fig. “SCREEN DISPLAY” form with SID activated

46.        Fig. “Map Overlays” form

47.        Fig. “LABELS” form

48.        Fig. GO TO SECTOR menu

49.        Fig. “Grids” with Lat/Long, Range and Distance Grids activated

50.        Fig. “Additional Displays” form

51.        Fig. Korean Additional Overlays

52.        Fig. Example of Volk Overlay specifics

53.        Fig. Example of Ft. Hood Additional Overlays

54.        Fig. Example of Alaskan Additional Overlays

55.        Fig. Example of Alaska Features Additional Overlays

56.        Fig. Example of FA-40 Additional Overlays

57.        Fig. Example of Alaskan Features Additional Overlays

58.        Fig. Example of No Fly 1 Additional Overlays

59.        Fig. Example of Key City Resources Additional Overlays

60.        Fig. Example of Other Additional Overlays

61.        Fig. “Help” options

62.        Fig. “Help Detection Legend”

63.        Fig. “ Help Source TCL File”

64.        Fig. “Interactive TCL Interfaces” menu w/list of executed TCL Commands

65.        Fig. “Screen with Tracker Region Boundaries selected”

66.        Fig. Screen w/Sim. & Wall Clocks

67.        Fig. Screen Logo

68.        Fig. Screen Assets Class Visibility

69.        Fig. Projections – 3-D World

70.        Fig. Location Options

71.        Fig. Background Options

72.        Fig. Overlay Options

73.        Fig. Options

74.        Fig Compass

75.        Fig Speed/Heading Scale form

Section V

76.        Fig. Change to RAP Interface

77.        Fig. RAP Tracker menu

78.        Fig. RAP Tracker/GUI Interface

79.        Fig. “Replay Archived Data”

80.        Fig. “Select RAP Replay File”

81.        Fig. “start_RAP

82.        Fig. Site Filters

83.        Fig. “SENSOR FILTERS” form

84.        Fig. “Sensor Display Color” form

85.        Fig. “Active Filters” form

86.        Fig. “Detection Filters”

87.        Fig. “TRACK DISPLAY” form

88.        Fig. “TRACK INFO” form

89.        Fig. Change Track Color Mode

90.        Fig. Track Labels activated & Configure SID Data Display Selected

91.        Fig. “LABELS” form

92.        Fig. Map Overlays

93.        Fig. “Grids”

94.        Fig. Additional Overlays

95.        Fig. Volk Additional Overlays

96.        Fig. SENSOR Overlays

Section VI

97.        Fig. Control Sites

98.        Fig. “SENSOR FILTERS” form

99.        Fig. “Sensor Active Filter Options”

100.    Fig. Control Sites

101.    Fig. “SensorDisplayColor

102.    Fig. “SensorFilterDetectAge

103.    Fig. “SensorFilterRange

104.    Fig. “SensorFilterAltitude

105.    Fig. “SensorFilterBox

106.    Fig. “SensorFilterXponder

107.    Fig. “DetectFilters

108.    Fig. “Detect Filters Search Reinforced”

109.    Fig. “Track Displays”

110.    Fig. “TracksOnScreen

111.    Fig. “ScreenTrackBoxOn

112.    Fig. “Screen Track Labels On”

113.    Fig. “TrackInfo

114.    Fig. “MapOverlays

115.    Fig. “Grids”

Section VII

116.    Fig. Start or Connect to FORCES Options

117.    Fig. Connect to CCS Site Options

118.    Fig. Choose and Run FORCES Scenario

119.    Fig. Connect to Options

120.    Fig. Change to RAP Interface

121.    Fig. Change to FORCES Controls

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I. RAP Overview

RAP and how it fits into overall aircraft controlling.

GENERAL

The Radar Analysis Program (RAP) tool currently is utilized to assist controllers in the control and scoring of ANG aircraft range missions in the Volk area. The aircraft control procedures and requirements used by RAP are basically consistent with the control procedures and requirements used to support other aircraft control missions. Control equipment at radar facilities “reads” and/or decodes the data transmitted by the aircraft. If the aircraft has no transponders (or they are off), the radars receive only a “raw” radar return from the aircraft with no amplifying data other than performance data (speed, heading and altitude) that the radar itself calculates.

Aircraft controllers at radar facilities have equipment (radar “scopes/consoles”) to enable them to observe all aircraft in their AOR and within the capabilities of the radar(s) itself. This includes the area that is covered by their radars (assigned or located with their C2 facility) plus, other radar data received from other radars and integrated with the sites’ air “picture”.

Each radar controller/operator in aircraft control operations may manipulate the air picture presented on a particular radar screen (scope) to provide maximum support to their surveillance and aircraft control missions. Such “manipulation” primarily consists of three types: overlays, filters and control tools.

1.      Overlays.

An aircraft controller may activate/deactivate a variety of overlays to assist (clarify, amplify) in performing his aircraft control tasks. RAP/FORCES provides the following overlay categories:

Fig. “Map Overlays

§         Areas/Boundaries (e.g. Warning Areas, Ranges, ADIZ)

§         Lat/Long (Geographical)

§         Specific Sites (e.g. Cities, Airports, Airbases, Navigation Aids)

§         Environmental (Weather) – when available

2.      Filters.

Filters allow the controller to display or filter specific data displayed on the radar screen. RAP/FORCES provides the following such filters:

Fig. “Grids”

§         Range (designates distances and markers observed from specified locations).

§         Azimuth (designates area observed based on azimuth for specified locations).

§         Area (limits the area observed).

§         Altitude (limits observed aircraft radar “returns” based on altitude status).

§         Transponder Modes/Codes (limits the radar “returns” to those transmitting specified modes/codes).

3.      Aircraft Surveillance/Control Tools.

These tools assist controllers to more easily, accurately or effectively control aircraft. RAP/FORCES provides the following such Aircraft Control Tools:

Fig.Sensor Filters Range and Azimuth”

§         Range Markers

§         Azimuth Markers (e.g. Compass)

§         Altitude Indicators (e.g. Sticks)

§         Speed/Heading Indicators

§         Labeling (on specified elements)

§         Coloring (e.g. Surveillance (radar) site and aircraft surveyed)

§         Clock

D. Summary.

RAP/FORCES provides the controller with additional tools to more effectively control and direct real time Range missions.

 

 

 

II. PRIMARY AIRCRAFT CONTROL TASKS (General):

RAP, as in other aircraft control missions, performs the basic C2 tasks - identification, control and surveillance.

General:

1.      Identification: To be accurately controlled, aircraft must first be identified. There are degrees or levels of identification necessary depending on the identification requirements and/or control tasks being executed. For example, the identification requirement might only be to identify what specific aircraft are “friendly” in a given area. All aircraft “squaking”, or transmitting on their IFF, could be considered (identified) as friendly. This method of identification would be less specific than “reading” the exact mode/code of each aircraft in the area. Doing the latter would be much more time consuming and is unnecessary for the requirement of simply identifying “friendly” aircraft in the area. Specific ID requirements would be required where it is critical that the aircraft being controlled is a specific aircraft – such as an aircraft being controlled on a bombing mission. The degree and reliability of aircraft identification required is left to the discretion of the controller.

1.      Specific or Positive ID of an aircraft: The most specific and reliable identification of an aircraft is via its Mode/Code and/or Tail #. The “Mode” that the aircrafts’ IFF is transmitting can accurately identify an aircraft without other facts or indicators, but is usually used to make only a general or less specific means of identification. This is may be accomplished when the pilot and aircraft controller are in radio contact. The two individuals can then cooperate to positively identify the aircraft by mode only by switching the mode that the aircraft is transmitting upon command. This causes the mode received on the radar screen to change as the controller directs it and the pilot executes it. The “Code” assigned to the IFF system of each aircraft is unique and is, therefore, the most positive means of identifying a specific aircraft. This numeric code appears on the radar screen when the controller takes the proper action on authorized interrogation equipment. This code, when correlated with other data, may further identify the aircrafts’ Call Sign, Type/Model, assigned Base, Unit and at times the Pilots’ name. The aircraft’s tail number is also unique. So, when the tail number of an aircraft can be identified the aircraft is considered to be “positively” identified. Tail number identification is usually accomplished thru visual means – where another pilot sees it.

Determined by (one or combination):

§         Transponder Code/Mode Return/Readout.

§         Pilot report via A/G electronics (Pilot of aircraft or other pilots in contact with specific aircraft).

§         Report from other C2 agencies (AWACS, AC&W, FAA).

2.      Less Specific ID of an aircraft: There are other means of identification of an aircraft that are less positive such as identifying the Call Sign of the aircraft, the Type/Model of the aircraft, the assigned Base of the aircraft, and Unit to which the aircraft is a part of. This degree of identification is sufficient in the conduct of a large number of flying and controlling missions. Since call-signs are unique to specific units possessing specific types/models of aircraft, it also indicates the type and model of the aircraft and the base and unit to which it is assigned. Other indicators also can be used to identify aircraft. For example, other agencies may report a specific aircraft (call-sign) is at a specific location at a specified time, thus identifying it to those who have the capability to “look” at the location and aircraft in that area. Occasionally, the location and flight characteristics of the “track” or aircraft, such as speed, heading, altitude, flight path or behavior may also identify an aircraft. For example, an aircraft appearing on the radar screen, in a generally defined area, that is maintaining a predefined speed, heading and altitude is most likely the aircraft that is being sought. The mode the aircraft is transmitting further confirm its’ identification. Once contact is made with the aircraft, positive ID can be confirmed by “watching” it accurately respond to control directions from the controller. For most missions, this degree of identification is sufficient and the amount of information listed above is enough to perform the assigned tasks.

Determined by (one or combination):

§         Transponder Return/Readout.

§         Pilot report via A/G electronics (Pilot of aircraft or other pilots in contact with specific aircraft).

§         Report from other C2 agencies (AWACS, AC&W, FAA).

§         Location, Flight characteristics (Speed, heading, altitude, flight path or behavior).

3.      General ID of an aircraft: Very often only a general identification of aircraft are necessary, such as identifying which aircraft in an area are Military/ Commercial/Civil, or Jet/Prop. This information often comes from a variety of sources and indicators. The IFF modes that are being transmitted will ID or categorize many of the aircraft. Reports or data from other agencies can identify many others. While, other indicators such as speed and altitude can separate jet and prop type aircraft. Often, an experienced controller can identify the categories of aircraft by simply examining the radar picture.

§         Report from other C2 agencies (AWACS, AC&W, FAA).

§         Location, Flight characteristics (Speed, heading, altitude, flight path or behavior.

§         Controller experience and judgment.

2.      Control:

1.      Close Control - Specific Mission Support. Close control is performed when the controller has positive identification of the aircraft or flight of aircraft and can direct or control its movements and actions. This is the type of control that RAP missions require. Controlling or directing a flight of aircraft on a bombing “run” or mission requires the capability to control all the flights’ movements and actions as necessary. Many other types of missions also require close control capabilities such as:

§         Range Sorties. Generally range missions include all and any types of missions performed over and on a predefined range area. Such missions are all peacetime training missions and includes a range of missions such bombing, strafing, jamming and intercepts. Such activities require close control.

§         Refueling. Aircraft refueling requires close control because it is necessary to control aircraft to be fueled and the tanker aircraft into a position where they may “hookup” and transfer fuel.

§         Air-to-Ground Bombing. RAP supports the controller in controlling bombing missions over a range – such as “Volk”s. Close control is required of course.

§         Air-to-Air Intercepts. Air-to-air intercepts require the close control of the interceptors at minimum. It may also require the potential intercepted aircraft or targets of interception to be under positive control. In this case, the target and interceptors may be under the positive control of separate control agencies.

§         Air-to-Air Gunnery. Occasionally, aircraft armed with guns and rockets– such as an A-10 – may perform these missions and require very close control. Most such firing is performed and controlled on designated ranges.

§         Recce. Reconnaissance missions may require close control during certain periods of its’ flight. This is often done when it is necessary to accurately identify the aircraft’s position or the positions of other objects in air or on the ground. Routine control is often employed for this type of mission as well. Flight following, vectors, range and bearing to other objects, warnings of potential attack from opposing forces, weather status, message relays etc are all such routine types of assistance and control.

§         SAR. Search and Rescue missions – due to their nature and objectives – often require close control. Positive direction or control to specific geographical locations is very important as well as keeping the SAR aircraft informed of all related activities and status.

§         Emergencies. Perhaps the most important situation where positive control is necessary is during aircraft emergencies. With no room for error, the controller must perform all tasks and aspects of control with perfection. Even when the aircraft is lost the life of the aircrew is at stake and at the mercy of the controller.

2.      Routine Control – General Mission Support. Many other aircraft controller duties include “general” or routine tasks that require only brief or causal ID or control such as:

§         Flight Follow – often performed to simply “keep track” of a flight and to inform him of weather conditions, other air traffic in his vicinity and the bearing and range of other objects from his current location. This requires the controller to simply monitor the progress of the flight with occasional radio contact.

§         Vector – a simple one-time control command to an aircraft or flight. It means to change and take up a specific heading.

§         Range/Bearing – is a control task that informs the aircrew of the range and bearing (such-and-such 110 degrees at 55 miles) of other aircraft or ground objects/locations in relationship to the controlled aircraft.

§         Position Report – Simply the current ground position of the aircraft.

§         Aircraft Separation – The distance between two specific aircraft or flights.

§         Weather Status – Status of weather in a specific location. Cloud cover, wind and altimeter readings are often the most important information.

§         Message Relay – The relay of information from or to an aircraft.

3. Surveillance.

a. Surveillance serves as the basis of any type of aircraft control mission. A controller must be aware of not only the aircraft under his control, but of all other air traffic in the area. The primary reason for this responsibility is safety, but air safety is not the only reason. Surveillance is also a basic function of air defense and command and control and is the first step leading to identification and, later, control. Surveillance is very important to RAP missions as well. The RAP controller is not only responsible for controlling his aircraft but also in providing the pilots with warnings of other aircraft in the area, their relative locations and other particulars – their headings, speed and altitudes. RA P provides all this data and more to the controller. By utilizing RAP overlays, a host of other critical information can be provided to the controller as well. This includes the type of aircraft, the number of aircraft in the flight, the surveillance and/or control agency under which the aircraft are currently being controlled or flight followed, and often even the call signs. RAP controllers are often alerted to aircraft emergencies

III. Primary RAP Control Tasks (italics) in relation to other basic aircraft control functions. The other control functions listed may also be performed by RAP controllers, but are not usually considered as primary control tasks.

1.      ID aircraft.

2.      Vector aircraft.

3.      Provide relative positions (range/bearing/altitude) to other air traffic.

4.      Control (direct) flight parameters of aircraft under control (altitude, heading, speed, turn-rate, ascent/descent rate).

5.      Track fuel and weapon status of aircraft under control.

6.      Ensure flight restrictions in control area are not violated.

7.      Flight restriction for the control areas.

o        Special areas – (e.g. Warning, No-fly).

o        Flight corridors.

o        Altitude limitations/restrictions.

8.      Determine coverage/limitations of other radar sites.

9.      Provide flight warnings and advisories as required.

10.  Provide altimeter and weather status.

11.  Air Emergency assistance.

12.  Relay data to other agencies as required.

Control Tasks definitions (RAP Control Tasks in Italics).

1.      ID aircraft.

Several options exist to identify an aircraft. One or a combination of those below can be used for positive identification.

o        Beacon mode/code. Learning the mode/code of an unidentified aircraft is helpful in identifying it. There are several means of determining what mode or code a specific aircraft is transmitting using RAP. Each such option is activated by taking the steps listed for each below.

1.      Options” to ”Detection Filters” to specify Beacon filter(s).

Fig. Beacon Options

2.      Under “Map Overlays” to “Labels” - the pertinent “Beacon” options must by on.

Fig. Beacon options under Labels menu

3.      Options” to “Track Displays” to “Specify Ind. Track Params”. Once a track is selected from the map screen, the Beacon Mode and Code that the aircraft is transmitting appears on the form.

 

Fig. Individual beacon data listed on “TRACK INFO” form

o        Identifying the radar site that is tracking and reporting the aircraft.

1.      Options” to “Site Filters” to “Site” to “Select Sensor Display Color”.

There are usually a number of aircraft tracks being displayed on the screen at all times. Often it is important for the controller to know what radar (site) is tracking and reporting a specific “track”. To learn this, the controller may go to the “Options” on the RAP master menu and select “Site Filters”. The current radar sites and their individual track display colors are indicated on this form. The color for an individual site may be changed by selecting the “Change Color” bar, which then causes the “Select Sensor Display Color” form to appear. On this form a unique color for that site may be “mixed” and applied.

Figs. “Site Filters” to “Site” to “Select Sensor Display Color”

1.      If the color of the site is already known, simply refer to screen to find these colors indicating the aircraft being tracked and reported by that radar.

o        Location - Range/Bearing from a specified point.

1.      Options” to “Map Overlays” to “Grid” to “Range Grids” to “Re-center Grids” to “Select center point on Map” to “Confirm”. These actions produces range markers from which the range from that point to the aircraft can be determined.

Figs. “Map Overlays” to “Grids” to “Recenter Grids”

1.      Click on “Dist. Button” (lower screen) and then click on the two locations to get the range. Fig?

o        Altitude, speed and heading of the aircraft.

1.      Options” to “Detection Filters” to “Beacon”. Box indicates altitude, speed and the track has a heading line indicator.

 

2.      Map Overlays” to “Speed and Heading Indicator” overlay.

 

 

 

 

 

Figs. Speed and Heading Indicator selected with Screen track.

3.      Options” to “Track Displays” to “Specify Ind. Track Params”. Track is selected from the map.

Fig. “Track Displays” form with “Specify Ind. Track Params” option.

Track number.

1.      Options” to “Detection Filters” to “Beacon”. Assigned track number is indicated in box. Under “Map Overlays”, the “Label Tracks” must by on.

Fig. Labels with Label Tracks Activated

Fig. Screen with Track Labels Activated

2.      Click on track and read the track number from the “Asset Select” form.

Fig. Asset Select

 

 

1.      Options” to “Track Displays” to “Specify Ind. Track Params” – after track is selected from the map.

2.      Vector aircraft.

o        Location of aircraft under control.

If known, no other action is required. If unknown, the location of the aircraft must be determined by Beacon mode/code; Range/Bearing from a specified point; altitude, speed and heading of the aircraft; identifying the radar site that is tracking the aircraft; and/or Track number.

o        Bearing to the designated vector point.

1. Click on “DIST arrow” button located on lower portion of screen. Select anchor point and then the pertinent point or object to obtain the bearing and range to that particular point.

Fig. Distance Arrow on Screen

2. To obtain a “rough” bearing to several objects/points, select the “Compass” located on lower portion of screen. Then, click on the aircraft to place to the compass overlay over it. An approximate bearing can be read to all objects/locations within the compass overlay.

Fig. Compass on Screen

3.      Provide relative positions (range/bearing/altitude) to other air traffic.

o        Location and altitude of the aircraft under control.

1. The location of the aircraft must be determined by Beacon mode/code; Range/Bearing from a specified point; altitude, speed and heading of the aircraft; identifying the radar site that is tracking the aircraft; and/or Track number.

2. “Options” to “Track Displays” to “Specify Ind. Track Params” to “Track Info”. And click on the radar/beacon indicator on the map. All relative data on that aircraft will appear on the form (L/L, track number, beacon setting, heading, altitude, speed, color of the track and any amplifying data).

o        Location and bearing of other aircraft in area.

1. The relative location of other air traffic in the control area is presented on the screen (usually via radar “inputs” from radars in the area).

2. When required, flight parameters of specific air traffic may be determined via selection of Options/Track Displays/Specify Ind. Track Params/Track Info. Then click on the radar/beacon indicator on the map. All relative data on that aircraft will appear on the form (L/L, track number, beacon setting, heading, altitude, speed, color of the track and any amplifying data).

o        Bearing and range to other aircraft.

1.      To obtain the range and bearing of other aircraft in the area, first click on “DIST arrow” button located on lower portion of screen. Then select the aircraft under control and then click on the other aircraft to obtain the bearing and range to it.

2.      Range and bearing from the aircraft under control to other “strangers” are reported to the controlled aircraft (“aircraft at 110 deg, range 45nm”). Often the altitude of the stranger as well as the heading is also reported to the aircraft under positive control (“heading 330 (deg) at angels 30000 (ft)”). If the stranger is crossing the path of the controlled aircraft, this information may also be transmitted (“bearing 330 (deg) crossing left to right). Bearing can be reported as a “clock position” rather than degrees – e.g. “aircraft at eleven o’clock, crossing left to right”.

4.      Control (direct) flight parameters of aircraft under control (altitude, heading, speed, turn-rate, climb/descent rate).

o        Call sign and location of aircraft.

1.      Call sign may not be found with RAP tools unless it has been manually entered as Amplifying Data on the Track Info. Form. The call sign is usually known from the pre-flight/mission briefing and/or at the time of radio check-in between the controller and pilot.

2. Location: The location of the aircraft must be determined by Beacon mode/code; Range/Bearing from a specified point; altitude, speed and heading of the aircraft; identifying the radar site that is tracking the aircraft; and/or Track number.

If location if unknown, the user selects “Options” to “Track Displays” to “Specify Ind. Track Params” to “Track Info.” and clicks on the radar/beacon indicator on the map. All relative data on that aircraft will appear on the form (L/L, track number, beacon setting, heading, altitude, speed, color of the track and any amplifying data).

o        Type aircraft and flight parameters. (Outside scope of RAP.)

5.      Track fuel and weapon status of aircraft under control. (Outside scope of RAP.)

o        Informed of fuel status by pilot of aircraft or other means.

6.      Ensure flight restrictions in control area are not violated.

o        Location of control areas.

Map Overlays” to “Data-Driven Displays” to “Additional Overlays” to “Volk” and activate specific area overlays. Causes area boundaries to appear on map.

Fig. Range Boundaries Overlay

o        Ensure aircraft under control do not violate flight restrictions. Positive control and/or warnings to aircraft are the means to accomplish this.

7.      Observe flight restriction for the control areas. (The specific restrictions are outside scope of RAP.)

o        Locations and flight data (speed, altitude, heading) of aircraft near control areas.

1.      If location if unknown, the user selects Options/Track Displays/Specify Ind. Track Params/Track Info. and clicks on the radar/beacon indicator on the map. All relative data on that aircraft will appear on the form (L/L, track number, beacon setting, heading, altitude, speed, color of the track and any amplifying data).

8.      Determine coverage/limitations of other radar sites.

o        Location of radar sites.

Map Overlays/Sensor Displays/Sites. Causes radar site icons to appear on the map over the geographical location of the sites.

o        Range and altitude of radar coverage for the sites.

Map Overlays/Sensor Displays/Sites/Coverages. Causes radar site icons to appear on the map over the geographical location of the sites with the radar coverage range overlaid on the site. Specific radar coverage and altitude filters that apply to a particular site and are currently be applied to the RAP screen may be found by Options/Site Filters/the Site/Active Filters/then activation of the Coverage, Altitude, and Area.

9.      Provide flight warnings and advisories as required. (Outside scope of RAP.)

o        Requires radio contact with pilots (with known call-signs and radio frequencies).

o        Knowledge of flight warnings and advisories. Received from applicable flight advisory agencies.

10.  Provide altimeter and weather status. (Outside scope of RAP.)

o        Requires radio contact with pilots (with known call-signs and radio frequencies).

o        Knowledge of altimeter and weather status. Received from weather and/or C2 units.

11.  Air Emergency assistance.

o        Communication with pilot. Radio or relay. (Outside scope of RAP.)

o        Type emergency and indicators. Usually reported by pilot with the emergency.

o        Call sign and location of aircraft.

1.      Call sign may not be found with RAP tools unless it has been manually entered as Amplifying Data on the Track Info. Form. The call sign is usually known from the pre-flight/mission briefing and/or at the time of radio check-in between the controller and pilot.

2. Location: The location of the aircraft must be determined by Beacon mode/code; Range/Bearing from a specified point; altitude, speed and heading of the aircraft; identifying the radar site that is tracking the aircraft; and/or Track number.

If location if unknown, the user selects Options/Track Displays/Specify Ind. Track Params/Track Info. and clicks on the radar/beacon indicator on the map. All relative data on that aircraft will appear on the form

o        Current flight characteristics (speed, heading, altitude) of aircraft.

Either reported by the pilot or can be found when user selects Options/Track Displays/Specify Ind. Track Params/Track Info and clicks on the radar/beacon indicator on the map.

o        Current fuel and weapons state. Reported by pilot.

o        Type aircraft and flight parameters of that specific aircraft. (Outside scope of RAP.) Type aircraft can be reported real time by pilot, related to call sign or unit and/or reported in pre-mission briefing.

o        Emergency (bailout) procedures for that specific aircraft. (Outside scope of RAP.) Reference documents/cards.

o        Location/range/bearing and altitude of other aircraft in vicinity.

1.      To obtain the range and bearing of other aircraft in the area, first click on “DIST arrow” button located on lower portion of screen. Then select the aircraft under control and then click on the other aircraft to obtain the bearing and range to it.

2.      Range and bearing from the aircraft under control to other “strangers” are reported to the controlled aircraft (“aircraft at 110 deg, range 45nm”). Often the altitude of the stranger as well as the heading is also reported to the aircraft under positive control (“heading 330 (deg) at angels 30000 (ft)”). If the stranger is crossing the path of the controlled aircraft, this information may also be transmitted (“bearing 330 (deg) crossing left to right). Bearing can be reported as a “clock position” rather than degrees – e.g. “aircraft at eleven o’clock, crossing left to right”.

o        Suitable airfields available for emergency landings. Location of airbases in the area may be determined by:

1.      Options/Map Overlays/Airbases that causes icons of the airbases to appear on the map.

2.      Suitability is determined via applicable reference documents.

o        Restrictions, radio frequencies and control agencies at the bases. Reference to applicable flight manual/ documents.

o        Availability of emergency equipment and capabilities at airfields. Via from contact with the appropriate airbase/airfield agencies.

o        Capability to communicate with applicable control, recovery agencies. Required dedicated ground communication with these agencies.

o        Range from emergency aircraft to potential recovery airfield(s). Click on Dist. Button (lower screen). Click on the emergency aircraft and each base to get the range and bearing to that potential emergency landing field.

o        Correlation of range and available fuel. Tabulated by the controller when the fuel state and the distance to recovery base are known.

o        Weather – in control area and at potential recovery airfields. Received from weather or other control agencies.

o        Notification, scramble and control of applicable Rescue elements. Notification of the availability and status of rescue elements is received from pertinent rescue agencies and/or from the elements themselves when they have begun operation or flight.

12.  Relay data to other agencies as required. (Outside scope of RAP.)

o        Capability to contact other agencies.

 

IV. RAP Control Elements and Forms - This section explains the “layout” and order

of all the RAP Control forms and what each selection produces or accomplishes.

 

RAP CONTROLS:

 

1. “RAP Master Menu”

 

Fig. Menu

 

A. File.

 

Fig. File Options

“Replay Controls”

“Load Saved Settings”

Select File” form appears with saved files listed. Select Files to be loaded.

 

Fig. “Select File” menu

 

“Save Current Settings”

Save File” form appears with current files listed. Select Files to be saved.

 

Fig. “Save File” menu

 

FORCES and Live Feeds” – menu appears with three options.

 

Fig. “FORCES and Live Feed”

 

Start Local FORCES & CCS Live Feeds”

 

§         FORCES Master Controls” menu appears. A “CONNECT TO CCS” form appears with:

 

Fig. Site Menu

 

§         Site:” Select site from drop down menu.

§         Site Latitude: Appears on line or can be typed.

§         Site Longitude: Appears on line or can be typed.

§         Site Elevation: Appears on line or can be typed.

§         Connect to PCDS. – Enable/Disable

§         Button. Select

§         CSS -> FORCES Upgrade Rate”. (Milliseconds) with a sliding scale bar. (100 – 2000). Select rate.

§         Exercise Mode Live Feed”. Selection produces a form where the File is selected. Selection of a file causes its name to appear on the “CONNECT TO CCS” form.

§         EXECUTE”.

 

Once this task is complete, the operator can return to RAP by clicking on “Change to RAP Interface”.

 

Fig. “Change to RAP Interface”

 

To return to FORCES from RAP the operator selects “Change to FORCES Controls” on the RAP Master form.

 

Fig. “Change to FORCES Controls”

 

§         Start FORCES Scenario”. Selection causes the “START SCENARIO” form to appear where a “Run Configuration” is chosen (along with the listed DB and scenario Name) from a list of the FORCES scenarios.

 

 

Fig. “START SCENARIO”

 

Select “Execute” to start the selected scenario.

§         Connect to Ongoing FORCES Scenario”. Selection brings up the “connect to” form where the Sim Host is selected (e.g. “rabbit”).

 

 

Fig. “Connect to Ongoing Scenario” form

 

B. “Options”

 

1. “Site Filters” (lists applicable filters for the sites listed).

 

Fig. Site Filters

 

Selection of a site brings up the “SENSOR FILTERS” form.

 

Fig. “SENSOR FILTERS” form

 

“Current Color: ” (box with current color shown).

“Change Color” bar.

Selection brings up the:

Select Sensor Display Color” form.

 

Fig. “Sensor Display Color” form

 

Red: ” scale bar “Selection: ” (box with color code listed.)

Green: ” scale bar BOX (with color.)

Blue: ” scale bar

 

“Active Filters: ” Used to select the filters required.

Selection brings up a list of the following filters that will then be shown on the screen:

Fig. “Active Filters” form

 

ON” (on/off) – Turns off/on all filters area on the screen.

 

REAL” (on/off) – Turns off/on all real filters on the screen.

 

TEST” (on/off) - Turns off/on the test filters on the screen.

 

XPNDR” (on/off) – Selection causes the Xponder Filters” bar to appear on the “SENSOR FILTER” form.

 

Fig.Xponder Filters” bar

 

Selection of the Xponder Filters” bar brings up a list of all the following transponder codes with off/on capability.

 

Fig.Xponder Filters” form

 

BOX” (on/off) – Selection causes the “BOX SELECTION” section to appear on the “SENSOR FILTER” form.

 

Fig. “BOX SELECTION” section

 

This section allows the selection of:

“GEO” (on/off)- Turns the Geographical filter on or off.

“Define Box” - Selection allows the user to define the area on the screen causing the Lat/Long coordinates to appear in the “Latitude” and “Longitude” boxes.

TEXT” (on/off)- Turns on/off the Text filter appearing on the screen. When turned on the “RAP Detection Information – RADAR VOK (220)” form appears with all pertinent radar detection info for the VOK radar.

ALM” (on/off) - Turns on/off the Alarm filter on the screen.

“Latitude” boxes

“Longitude” boxes

“Confirm” bar

“Exit” bar

 

COVERAGE” bar – Selection causes a section, “COVERAGE FILTER” - to expand onto the form.

 

Fig. “COVERAGE FILTER” section

 

A compass with range markers out to a 255 nm range graphically display the parameters of the coverage filter. Range may be altered by clicking on the range markers on the compass. Both, Altitude and Range of the coverage area may be changed using the tools below:

 

Azimuth:” w/space to type on new azimuth – with a “Reset” button to input these values.

Range:” w/space to type on a new range – with a “Reset” button to input these values.

 

ALTITUDE” bar – Selection causes a section, “ALTITUDE FILTER” - to expand onto the form along with an altitude scale (to 100,000 ft) on which a user can manipulate to set the limits of the desired altitude filter.

 

Fig. “ALTITUDE FILTER” section

 

Altitude parameters can also be set by typing them into the boxes located next to “Alt:” and then clicking on “Reset”.

 

DETECTION AGE” (on/off) – Expands form to include scale bar (1-6) to select “Detection Age (in Frames)”.

 

Fig. “DETECTION AGE” section

 

SUPPRESSION\nMODE(on/off) - Activates/ deactivates the suppression mode.

 

Confirm” bar. Used to confirm each selection as it is made on the menu.

 

“Exit” bar.

 

2. “Detection Filters”

 

Fig. “Detection Filters”

 

Used to activate/deactivate the following filters:

 

“Search” (on/off) - Activates/ deactivates the search mode.

“Beacon” (on/off) - Activates/ deactivates the beacon mode.

“Search reinforced” (on/off) - Activates/ deactivates the search reinforced mode.

“Identification of Beacon” (on/off) - Activates/ deactivates the identification of beacon mode.

“Mode 4” (on/off) - Activates/ deactivates the Mode 4 mode.

“Search Mode 4” (on/off) - Activates/ deactivates the search Mode 4 mode.

“Beacon 4” (on/off) - Activates/ deactivates the beacon 4 mode.

“SAR” (on/off) - Activates/ deactivates the SAR mode.

“75 – 76 – 77(on/off) - Activates/ deactivates the 75 – 76 – 77 mode.

-> Map” (on/off) - Activates/ deactivates the map.

-> Strobe” (on/off) - Activates/ deactivates the strobe indicators.

O RTQC” (on/off) - Activates/ deactivates the RTQC.

 

3. “Track Displays” Used to apply track display options.

 

Selection causes Track Display” form –Universal Track Display Options” – to appear:

 

Fig. “TRACK DISPLAY” form.

 

Tracks On(on/off) - Activates/ deactivates the tracks that appear on the screen.

 

Tracks Box On” (on/off) - Activates/ deactivates the track boxes that appear on the screen.

 

Fig. Screen with Track Boxes activated.

 

Selection expands the form with the “Define Box” and Lat/Long coordinates displayed.

 

Fig. Form with the “Define Box” and Lat/Long coordinates

 

Track Labels On” (on/off) - Activates/ deactivates the track labels that appear on the screen. Also, activates the “Configure SID Data Display” bar.

 

 

Fig. Track Labels activated.

 

Fig. Screen with Track Labels activated.

 

Specify Ind. Track Patterns” bar. Selection causes the “TRACK INFO” form to appear.

 

Fig. “TRACK INFO” form

 

ID:” Compass w/arrow to indicate Heading of selected aircraft below small window.

“Mode 2:” 4 digit code.

“Mode 3:” 4 digit code.

“Mode C:”

“Location:” Lat/Long + altitude.

“Speed (Kts):” Speed in knots.

Display Color:” (displays current color). “Change” button. Causes the “Select Sensor Display Color” form to appear with following options to alter color of track.

Red: ” scale bar

Selection:” (box with color code listed.)

Green: ” scale bar BOX (with color.)

“Blue: ” scale bar

“OK” bar.

Cancel” bar.

User Amplification 1:” Selection causes button to change to “Send” and opens space to type required data.

User Amplification 2:” Selection causes button to change to “Send” and opens space to type required data.

“Source Sensor:” VOK

“Source: REAL Test/Real: NO

“Select From Map” Allows user to select a specific airborne object from screen. This action causes a white X to temporarily appear over the selected track and fills in the applicable data of the track on the “TRACK INFO” form.

“Flash” Selection causes a white circle to temporarily appear and flash over the track

“Flash Across Network” Selection causes the flash action to be displayed across the network.

Exit”

 

Change Track Color Mode” Selection causes a drop down menu to appear with:

 

“Color Track By Designation” (on/off)

Color Track By User Specification” (on/off)

Color Track By Sensor” (on/off)

 

Fig. “Change Track Color Mode”

 

Configure SID Data Display” Selection brings up the TRACK DISPLAY” form with SID options.

 

Fig. “SCREEN DISPLAY” form with SID activated.

 

The form expands with the data listed on the above form.

A single selection may be made for each line.

4. Map Overlays - Adds a variety of overlays to the screen during RAP operations. Any or all of the following labels may be selected.

 

Fig. “Map Overlays” form.

 

LABELS” – This option causes the “Labels” form to appear.

Fig. “LABELS” form.

Label Cities” – Labels all cities appearing on screen.

Label Airbase” - Labels all cities on the screen.

Label Airports” – Labels civilian airports on screen.

Label Reinforced Beacons” – Causes reinforced beacons labels to appear.

Label Beacons” - Causes all beacon labels to appear.

Label Mode 4 Beacons” – Allows for the labeling of Mode 4 beacons on the screen.

Label 7500, 7600, 7700” – Labels 7500, 7600, 7700 squawks.

Label Mode 4” – Labels Mode 4 transponder transmissions.

Label Tracks” – Labels all pertinent tracks in viewing area.

 

An area may be selected using the standard Map controls or by selecting a specific NORAD sector.

G0 TO SECTOR” – Selection of any listed NORAD sector brings that sector up on the screen.

 

North America

“NE” (Northeast)

“SE” (Southeast)

“SW” (Southwest)

“NW” (Northwest)

“CE” (Canada East)

“CW” (Canada West)

“AK” (Alaska)

Fig. GO TO SECTOR menu.

 

In addition to labels, many other overlays may be added to the RAP screen. Any or a combination of the following overlays may be selected:

 

“MAP OVERLAYS” section.

 

§         Map”

§         States & Provinces” (displays state boundaries)

§         Warning Areas” (displays “special” warning areas)

§         Sector Boundaries” (displays Air Defense sectors)

§         Compass” (displays a compass in the area)

§         Lat/Long” (displays Lat/Long for area)

§         Weather” (displays weather when weather data is incorporated)

§         City” (displays cities in the area)

§         Airports” (displays civilian airports)

§         Airbases” (displays military airbases)

§         Terrain Stick” (displays a line from the airborne object to the ground to indicate the current “real” altitude above the terrain)

§         Drop Stick” (displays a line from the airborne object to mean sea level to indicate the current instrument altitude)

§         Speed/Heading Indicator” (displays the speed and heading of an airborne object)

§         AMIS” (displays Air Movement Identification Zones)

§         ADIZ” (displays Air Defense Identification Zones)

§         Stop Points” (displays the Stop Points)

§         Navigation Aids” (displays the designated Navigation Aids”

§         Display Clock” (displays clock)

§         System Information:”

§         Volk ATCAA Boundaries” (displays the Volk Air Traffic Control Approved Area Range(s)Boundaries)

 

Grids –>” Selection brings up the form:

Fig. “Grids” with Lat/Long, Range and Distance Grids activated.

 

“MAP GRID DEFINITION”.

 

Lat/Long Grids” (button). Selection causes this section to expand with three options:

Grid Separation (Degrees)”. Defines the size – in degrees of the Grids.

Grid Extent (# Boxes)”. Defines the number of Grid boxes to be displayed.

Opaqueness”. Defines the degree of brightness of the Grids on the screen.

 

Range Grids” (button). Selection causes this section to expand with three options:

Ring Separation (NM)”. Defines the size (in NMs) of the range markers on the screen.

Grid Extent (# Rings)”. Defines the size number of range rings on the screen.

Opaqueness”. Defines the degree of brightness of the Range Markers on the screen.

 

Distance Grids” (button). Selection causes this section to expand with three options:

Grid Separation (Degrees)” Defines the size – in degrees of the Grid Separation.

Grid Extent (# Boxes)”. Defines the number of Grid Boxes on the screen.

Opaqueness”. Defines the degree of brightness of the Distance Grids on the screen.

 

“Current Color(Displays current color)

 

Change Color” (bar). Selection brings up the “Select Grid Color” form that allows user to change the color.

Altitude Separation (ft) ”(Scale bar to set altitude)

 

Current Grid Center

Lat/Long” lines.

 

Re-center Grids” Selection causes the grids to re-center themselves to the new location.

 

“Confirm”

 

“Exit”

Data Driven Display ->” – Selection brings up the “Additional Displays” menu

 

Fig. “Additional Displays” form.

 

The following display areas and the specific overlays applicable each area are:

 

Korea – Tactical”

 

Fig. Korean Additional Overlays

“Volk”

Fig. Example of Volk Overlay specifics

 

Fort Hood

 

Fig. Example of Ft. Hood Additional Overlays

 

Alaska Air Space”

Fig. Example of Alaskan Additional Overlays

 

Alaska Features”

 

Fig. Example of Alaska Features Additional Overlays

FA-40 Control Lines”

 

Fig. Example of FA-40 Additional Overlays

 

Alaskan Features”

Fig. Example of Alaskan Features Additional Overlays

 

“No Fly 1”

 

Fig. Example of No Fly 1 Additional Overlays

 

Key City Resources”

 

Fig. Example of Key City Resources Additional Overlays

Other”

Fig. Example of Other Additional Overlays

 

Exit”

 

SENSOR OVERLAYS” section. Selection causes the specific items to appear on the screen.

 

Sites”. Activate/Deactivate. Displays the radar sites in the area.

 

Filter”. Activate/Deactivate. Displays filters over the sites.

 

Coverage”. Activate/Deactivate. Displays the radar coverage (in NMs) of a site.

 

“Help” – Used to select one of the following options:

 

Fig. “Help” options.

 

“Detection Legend”

RAP Detection Notation” form with a list of the detections and legend for each.

 

Fig. “Help Detection Legend”

 

“Source TCL File”

 

“Open” form to select the TCL Files.

Fig. “ Help Source TCL File”

 

Issue TCL File”. Selection brings up the “Interactive TCL Interfaces” form with the Executed TCL Commands listed.

Fig. “Interactive TCL Interfaces” menu w/list of executed TCL Commands.

 

Selection of the options listed below direct how the commands are executed.

 

Output Tracker Raw Detection Data” – Selection causes a prompt on the main menu to “PICK LAT/LONG PT”. The operator clicks a point on the map screen to identify the raw detection area.

 

Output Tracker Regional Diagnostics” - Selection causes a prompt on the main menu to “PICK OPPOSITE AREA BOUNDARIES”. The operator clicks on two opposite points on the map screen to define the boundaries of the region.

 

Fig. “Screen with Tracker Region Boundaries selected”.

 

Other forms/menus to which the user has excess when operating the RAP simulation.

 

FORCES\RAP MAP CONTROLS

 

1. Clocks – Located at top of FORCES Map screen.

 

Fig. Screen w/Sim. & Wall Clocks

 

a. Sim Time

2.      Wall Time

2. Other Controls above Map screen:

 

a. “Program”

 

1.      Logo”

 

Fig. Screen Logo

2) “Debug”

 

a) “Dump SceneGraph

 

3) “Quit”

 

b. “Assets”

 

1.      Visibility by Class”. Selection brings up the “FORCES Class Asset Visibility” form titled “FORCES Asset Class Visibility” with the classes of assets listed. Each class may be activated/deactivated.

 

Fig. Screen Assets Class Visibility

 

c. “Projections” – Designates the type of projection to appear on the screen.

Fig. Projections – 3-D World

 

d. “Location” – Selection focuses the screen map on the selected area.

Fig. Location Options

 

4.      Backgrounds” – Allows modifications to be made to the Map background.

 

Fig. Background Options

 

f. “Overlays” – Activation causes the selected overlays to appear on the Map.

Fig. Overlay Options

 

g. “Options”

 

Fig. Options

 

1.      Camera” – Selection causes two options to appear:

“Perspective”

“Orthographic”

2.      Compass” – Selection causes a compass to appear in the center of the screen.

 

Fig. Compass

 

3.      Day/Night” – Selection creates a day or night overlay over the map area. Often used to create an ideal background for the icons and colors utilized at the moment.

 

4.      Earth Lock”

 

5.      Speed/Heading Scale” - Selection brings up the “Speed/Heading Scale Factors” form.

 

Fig Speed/Heading Scale form

 

A sliding scale (50 – 1500) is used to set the “Value (kts) Normalized to Icon Size”.

 

6.      Tether Lock”.

 

8.      Help”

1)“Usage”

 

V. RAP Operating Instructions - First section of Part V explains “how” each major RAP tool is used. The second part uses examples of how RAP is utilized to perform a variety of the most common RAP control tasks.

 

A. Starting RAP:

 

1. (From) “FORCES Master Control’s” menu

Select “System Controls”

Select “Change to RAP Interface”

 

Fig. Change to RAP Interface

 

“RAP Tracker” menu appears

 

Fig. RAP Tracker menu

 

“Host:” RAP_JSS_SERVER

“Port:” 4012

“Tracker Information:”

“Host:” RAP_TRACKER

“Port:” 4012

Select “GO” (button)

EXIT” (button)

Returns with “RAP Tracker/GUI Interface” menu

 

Fig. RAP Tracker/GUI Interface

 

“Attempting Connect to Tracker” (Red color)

“Attempting to Connect to JSS Data Source” (Yellow color)

“Connection Made to RAP Data Servers” (Lt. Blue color)

Or:

2. (From) a Terminal Window type:

 

type:start_RAP” in terminal window

 

start_RAPmenu appears with choices:

“Display GUI” (on/off)

“Run ‘Live Feed’ Servers” (on/off)

“Replay Archived Data” (on/off)

“Use NonStandard Data Server” bar

“Start RAP GUI” bar

“Exit” bar

select: “Replay Archived Data”

 

Fig. “Replay Archived Data”

 

expands menu that includes:

“Select Replay file”

“RAP Playback file start point (ratio)” – slide bar (0-100)

select: “Select Replay file”

brings up “Select RAP Replay File” menu w files listed.

 

Fig. “Select RAP Replay File”

 

select: File from the list or type in file name.

Returns to: start_RAPmenu

 

Fig.start_RAP

 

select (if required): a Playback File start point (ratio)

select: “Start Replay” bar

Action causes RAP controls to activate on the Master RAP form and automatically goes thru following sequence:

“Attempting Connect to Tracker” (Red color)

“Attempting to Connect to JSS Data Source” (Yellow color)

Connection Made to RAP Data Servers” (Lt. Blue color)

B. SET UP RAP SCREEN

1. Choose Site (e.g. VOK) from Options on Main Menu.

 

Fig. Site Filters

Selection of a site brings up the SENSOR FILTERS form with Filtering Options For Site:”

Fig. “SENSOR FILTERS” form

2.      Choose Color (accept current color displayed or change color).

 

Fig. “Sensor Display Color” form

3. Select required Active Filters from list.

 

Fig. “Active Filters” form

 

ON - Activate

REAL

TEST

XPNDR - Xponder Filters

BOX - Box Sensor Filter

GEO

TEXT

ALM

Define Box (Latitude/Longitude)

COVERAGE

COVERAGE FILTER

Azimuth

Range

ALTITUDE

ALTITUDE FILTER

SUPPRESSION\nMODE

4. Select required Detection Filters from list.

 

Fig. “Detection Filters”

 

5. Choose Track Display options. Selection causes “Track Display” form – “Universal Track Display Options” – to appear with:

 

Fig. “TRACK DISPLAY” form

 

Tracks OnEnable. All tracks appear on the screen. This is necessary to observe the tracks while controlling RAP missions.

 

Tracks Box OnEnable. All tracks with track boxes appear on the screen. This tool is used when the controller requires more information about tracks. It may be disabled when not required to clear the screen of unnecessary clutter.

 

Track Labels On – Enable. All tracks labels appear on the screen. This tool is used when the controller requires more information about the attributes of the tracks and may be disabled when not required to clear the screen of unnecessary clutter.

 

Specify Ind. Track Patterns. This is not normally used in the setup step. Its’ purpose is to gain specific data on a specific track. When it is selected, it causes the “TRACK INFO” form to appear.

 

Fig. “TRACK INFO” form

ID: ID number of track.

Mode 2: Indicates if squaking Mode 2.

Mode 3: Gives Mode 3 code if target is transmitting it.

Mode C: Only listed when applicable.

Location: Lists Lat/Long and altitude of track.

Speed (Kts): Speed of track in knots.

Display Color: Color of track (that can be changed)

User Amplification 1: Any amp. data available

User Amplification 2: Other amp. data available

Source Sensor: Sensor currently reporting the track.

Source: Real or Test.

Flash: Selection causes a circle to temporarily appear around the track to make for quick and easy identification.

Select From Map. When selected allows controller to click on the track on the screen – causing all other pertinent data to be filled into the form.

6. Change Track Color Mode. Selection causes a drop down menu to appear with:

Color Track By Designation

Color Track By User Specification

Color Track By Sensor

Fig. Change Track Color Mode

7. Configure SID Data Display. Selection causes a section of the form to expand with the following data. A single selection may be made for each line.

Fig. Track Labels activated & Configure SID Data Display Selected

8. Select Map Overlays.

9. Select Labels (as required)

 

Fig. “LABELS” form

10. Select Sector “Go to Sector” (ignore if already in VOK area)

11. Select additional overlays. In addition to labels, many other overlays may be added to the RAP screen. Any or a combination of the following overlays may be selected from “MAP OVERLAYS”.

Fig. Map Overlays

12. Select Grids.

Fig. “Grids”

Lat/Long Grids – off/on button

Range Grids - off/on button

Distance Grids - off/on button

Current Color – shows color bar

Change Color – form utilized to change color

Altitude Separation (ft) – sliding scale bar to set separation altitude of up to 50K

Current Grid Center:

Lat/Long” lines

Recenter Grids

13. Select Data Driven Displays for Area from list (e.g. Volk).

Fig. Additional Overlays

14. Select Volk - Turn on required displays from list - off/on button. Following options appear.

Fig. Volk Additional Overlays

15. Select SENSOR OVERLAYS

Fig. SENSOR Overlays

 

Sites – Displays Radar sites on screen.

Filter – Displays Area selected on map.

Coverage – Activates coverage.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

VI. RAP Overlays.

 

Note: The purpose of overlays and filters are to support the ground controller in performing the three major Command and Control (C2) functions of aircraft control: identification, surveillance and control. The RAP overlays and filters directly support these C2 functions of directing aircraft in the performance and conduct of RAP missions.

A. There are basically six types of “overlays” and filters:

1. Aircraft “tracks” or radar “returns” on the RAP screen are the most important type of data because they directly support the control mission.

Note: Technically, the raw radar returns are not overlays or filters, but are the actual “tracks” that the radar system itself has detected and is presenting to the screen. To a lesser extent, the electronic data transmitted from the aircraft to the radar is also less of a true overlay but can be filtered to present the specific data the controller might require. However, since both types of data are usually present on the control screen they are included in this section.

 

1.      There are two basic types of aircraft returns – raw and electronic.

 

1) “Raw” returns are simply the radar return that is produced by the detecting radar. In the early days of radar, this was the primary and often only means of detecting aircraft. As long as an aircraft was in range and altitude (line-of-sight) of the radar its “reflection” was returned to the radar receiver and presented on the controllers’ screen. Raw radar returns for aircraft are still present today, but are far less relied upon. They are occasionally used to reinforce other identification means and data.

 

1.      Electronic” returns are those that are generated and broadcast by equipment in the aircraft. The first such equipment installed in aircraft were simple transponders that “squawked” (broadcast) four modes (Mode 1, 2, 3 and Emergency). Later, the capability to send a code that was unique to the individual aircraft was developed and added. This greatly increased the capability to reliably identify an individual aircraft even in congested flight corridors and heavy traffic areas. Finally, a device was added to the aircraft that broadcast various types of flight data and performance status for each aircraft. To “read” or interpret the data being electronically broadcast from the aircraft, ground based complimentary/compatible equipment is required. Most military C2 units possess such equipment. Government C2 agencies (FAA) also have the ability to read required data from both commercial and military aircraft. Military aircraft of most other nations also possess electronic transponders – often with unique codes that are unreadable by the receivers of other countries.

 

In RAP, there are two areas, Detection Filters and

Track Displays, where this type of data may be filtered for presentation on the control screen.

 

2. Depiction of ground objects.

 

a. The capability to present the location of certain ground-based objects on the screen, such as navigation aids, is important. City, airbase, and airport locations are other examples of ground-based entities that can be “overlayed” onto the control screen.

 

This type of overlays in RAP are available in two places. Under the “Map Displays” -> “Labels” section.

And, under “Overlays” (Rivers, Roads, Coasts, Political Boundaries) located directly above the Map Screen.

 

3. Classification of airborne objects (as applicable).

 

1.      Although technically not a separate type of overlay, the ability to separate the flights and single aircraft on the control screen into categories is very important. Usually this is accomplished by using colors for different categories. For example: friendly aircraft - white, special aircraft (emergencies or Air Force One) – yellow, unknown aircraft – orange, and hostile aircraft – red. In RAP, colors are also used to indicate what C2 agency is currently responsible for or “controlling” aircraft. The color for the pertinent category is usually applied to all data related to the aircraft when it is presented on the screen.

 

The RAP controller is able to change the “Track Color Mode” of aircraft for three categories: Designation, User Specification, and Sensor by selecting “Track Displays” and the “Change Track Color Mode”. He may also assign colors to the aircraft under control of the various C2 sites in the area under “Options” -> Site Filters” on the Master RAP menu. For example, one C2 site might

 

4. Boundaries or special areas.

 

1.      Boundaries, pre-defined for various areas in a specific location, are an important category of overlays. Examples are: Air Defense Identification Zones (ADIZ), State Boundaries, Ranges, Sector Boundaries, and Warning Areas.

 

In RAP, such overlays are found at the “ Map Overlays” (under “Options”). These overlays range from Map Overlays to Warning Areas.

 

5. Grids.

 

1.      Grid overlays are really tools for the controller to use when necessary. They include: Latitude/Longitude Grids, Range Grids and Distance Grids. Latitude/Longitude Grids overlays the Lat/Long coordinates onto the screen. Range Grids are circles around a specified geographical point indicating range from the center (specified point). Multiple range circles – representing increased distances - may also be presented as an overlay. Distance Grids are usually “lines” that are scaled into set distances (much like a ruler measures distance) and are used to measure the distance from a single point to another object.

 

The location of these Grids are found under “Map Overlays”

-> “MAP OVERLAYS” -> “Grids” There are also other types of overlays that aid the controller in directing the RAP mission. These include tools such as “Terrain Stick”, “Drop Stick” and “Speed/Heading Indicator”..

 

On the same “Map Overlays” menu, “Data-Driven Displays” presents “Additional Overlays” for specially designated areas such as Alaska, Fort Hood and Volk. These include overlays that have been previously incorporated into and for that specific area. For example, under “Volk” there are river, roads, lakes, targets, boundaries, MOAs and Airstrips.

 

2.      Other Terrain features.

 

1.      These overlays may represent rivers, roads, coasts, political boundaries etc.

 

Options for these overlays appear under “Overlays” located directly above the screen.

 

B. Utilization of overlays with RAP.

 

1. Overlay Variables. Each RAP mission utilizes overlays. The specific overlays selected and used by the controller are dependent on several variables. These include:

1.      The preferences of the controller.

 

More than any other factor, is the importance of certain overlays to the individual controller. Some controllers prefer a minimum of overlays when controlling RAP missions while others choose a maximum of such aids. In between these extremes are numerous combinations of overlays that controllers utilize. There is no ideal combination of overlays that must or will be used. There is true because there is multitude of factors that may or may not require the support of a specific overlay during a specific phase of the control mission. Some of these factors are explained below.

 

2.      The area where the RAP missions are occurring. The area may dictate that roads, political boundaries and/or river overlays be present as background on the control screen.

 

3.      The number of flights participating in the RAP missions. In a situation where a large number of flights are in the control area may require more of the flight data being accessed and displayed in order to distinguish one aircraft or flight from the others.

 

4.      The number of individual aircraft in each RAP flight. Known separation and flight performance of individual aircraft from the others in a flight may be very important depending on the situation.

 

5.      Non-RAP mission aircraft density in the area. In areas where there are a high density of other aircraft – civilian, commercial and military - in the RAP control area, the controller may require a higher degree of certainty in identifying and maintaining identification of the RAP aircraft under his “close” control.

 

6.      The number of aircraft in the RAP mission flights. A flight of four verses a flight of only two aircraft requires the controller to exercise a slightly higher degree of vigilance while directing them during the RAP mission.

 

7.      Special areas or zones in the RAP control area. Many special areas or zones have related flight restrictions. The controller must be constantly aware of the location of these areas to avoid violating these restrictions. An overlay that displays these areas assists the controller in accomplishing this task.

 

8.      Flight performance characteristics of RAP mission aircraft – i.e. altitude, speed. During various phases of the RAP mission, the controller may require knowledge of the current altitude or other flight characteristics the RAP sorties. In these cases this data must be displayed on the control screen.

 

9.      Weather conditions in the RAP mission area. Weather image displays are not an overlay, but RAP has the capability to display them provided if “raw” radar returns are available from radar inputs.

 

10.  Participation of other agencies – i.e. handoffs, reporting requirements, identification capabilities. When other agencies are involved in supporting RAP missions, the controller may prefer to know what specific agency has control of specific RAP flights. The color of flights on the control screen can indicate the control agency that has this control at a specific time.

 

11.  Aircraft emergencies. Aircraft emergencies require immediate and accurate control by the controller. All data concerning the aircraft status and performance characteristics must be known and displayed to aid the controller in directing the aircraft. Overlays of available recovery bases, distances to these bases, relative distances based upon the fuel state, altitude and aircraft condition of the aircraft emergency conditions, special areas and zones to avoid, locations of other aircraft to avoid or available to assist, water areas in case of bailouts of the pilot, populated areas to avoid if the aircraft is “ditched”, roads that could be used as emergency “runways”, SAR locations, etc. Most of this data is available via the RAP overlays and would be utilized by the controller.

 

12.  Pre-identification of recovery bases and emergency support agencies. Of the data listed above, this the location of possible recovery bases is one of the most important.

 

13.  Location and availability of navigation aids. The relative location (“clock” or bearing) of navigation beacons to a RAP sortie can be important to a controller in identifying the aircraft when other methods fail.

2. How overlays are utilized? What are they and how are they used by the controller?

a. Site Filters.

What are they?

A list of the RAP sensor (control) sites with colors assigned.

Fig. Control Sites

Choosing a site or sensor causes the SENSOR FILTER form to appear with several options listed.

Fig. “SENSOR FILTERS” form

Fig. “Sensor Active Filter Options”

What do they do?

These filters allow the RAP controller or operator to customize the “tracks”, for a specific site or sensor, appearing on his screen. This is a valuable tool for limiting the number and type of tracks or aircraft returns that are presented. The limiting factors are: site/sensor color, detection age, coverage area, altitude, coverage area and transponder (Xponder).

Site/sensor color – This colors all track returns being monitored by the selected site and within the sensors’ range. The color may be selected by clicking on the site on the Site Filters form.

Fig. Control Sites

The Sensor Display form appears on which the color for that paricular site may be selcted.

Fig.SensorDisplayColor

Detection age – Limits the time or duration of the all tracks being presented on the RAP screen. The length of a tracks’ “trail” or history may be set (from 1 to 6 times).

Fig.SensorFilterDetectAge

Radar/sensor coverage area – This tool allows the operator to set the azimuth and range, for the sensor sites’ coverage, that aircraft tracks. Normally, a sensor reports and presents on the screen all tracks within a 360 radius of its coverage area. This coverage may be specified and limited by using the azimuth coverage tool. Also, a sensor normally reports and presents all tracks within the range of its radar coverage area (out to approximately 250 nm). This range may be set to lessor ranges so that the controlles will “see” only tracks within the revised range.

Fig.SensorFilterRange

Altitude – The altitude tool allows the controller to set parameters for the altitude that limits the track returns to those aircraft flying within these parameters. For example the operator is controlling a flight of aircraft at 25,000 ft and may want to “see” on his screen only aircraft within the area that are flying between 20,000 and 30,000 ft. He can accomplish this via the altitude coverage tool.

Fig.SensorFilterAltitude

Coverage area – This tool allows the controller to define or limit his radar/sensor coverage area. As stated earlier, the sensor will normally report and presesnt on the control screen all aircraft within its coverage area (360 degress and 250 miles). The controller may redefine this area by typing the Lat/long on the form or designating the rectangler area on the screen (selection of two points with the mouse). In addition, he may refine and limit what he “sees” withing the area by enabling/disabling the “GEO”, “TEXT” and “ALM” buttons.

Fig.SensorFilterBox

Transponder (Xponder) – The controller may select a specific transponder “squak” or mode that he is interested in presenting on his screen. RAP offers 21 different transponder transmissions that may be selected (i.e. “/data/rap/filters/IFR Traffic”).

Fig.SensorFilterXponder

b. Detection Filters.

What are they?

Detection Filters are tools that the controller utilizes to detect a specific category of aircraft – those transmitting identified modes or codes on their transponders. In RAP, there are 12 such filters.

Fig.DetectFilters

What do they do?

When enabled on the Detection Filter form they appear on the RAP control screen. For example, when the “Search Reinforced” options are activated, only the plus figure appears.

Fig. “Detect Filters Search Reinforced”

c. Track Displays.

What are they?

The “Universal Track Display Options” menu allows the operator to modify how (symbols and data) the “tracks” appearing on his screen are displayed.

 

Fig. “Track Displays”

What do they do? There are three primary track display options:

Tracks On” – With this option enabled, the RAP screen displays an aircraft icon over the tracks.

 

Fig.TracksOnScreen

Track Box On” - This selection causes a “Box” (containing data) next to each track.

Fig.ScreenTrackBoxOn

Track Labels On” – Labels appear with each track when this option is activated. The data on these labels can be refined by selection of desired SID data for each of the three lines contained in the label “box”.

Fig. “Screen Track Labels On”

 

These actions help to simplify the control, identification and direction tasks that of the RAP controller is performing.

In addition, the operator may direct certain display options for a specific aircraft in his surveillance area. This is done be selecting “Specific Ind. Track Params” that causes the “TRACK INFO” form to appear. The single track is selected by clicking on its image causing all relative data to fill onto the form. (ID #, Mode, Lat/Long, Speed, Heading (on the compass emblem), current Color, Any Amplification data, the Sensor Source (what radar is tracking this acircraft), and the Source (Real or Test). This data informs the controller of the flight parameters, location and status of a specific aircraft.

Fig.TrackInfo

The “Change Track Color Mode” bar allows the operator to change the color of the track either by Designation, User Specification or Sensor. Thus, the track characteristics can be further defined/refined to provide a more positive and speedy identification.

The “Flash” and “Flash Across Network” buttons at the bottom of the form, when selected, causes the track to temporarily “flash” on the the controller’s screen – or across the network to other controller screens. This tool is very helpful to quickly identify the aircraft and/or to allow other controllers to “pinpoint” the aircraft on their screens – when C2 coordination is required.

d. Map Overlays.

Fig.MapOverlays

 

What are they? Map Overlays are just that – overlays on the RAP map screen that assist the controller in aircraft control. They have no direct connection to the aircraft or tracks that are present on the same screen. There are two such categories in RAP: “MAP OVERLAYS” and “SENSOR OVERLAYS”.

 

What do they do? They support the controller in the performance of his C2 tasks and duties. There are four types or categories of map overlays.

 

1.      Specified entities located on the earth surface (e.g. Cities, Airports, Airbases).

2.      Borders, Boundaries, Areas, ADIS, AMIS, Lat/Long, Stop Points, Navigation Aids and Maps.

3.      Related control tools (e.g. a Compass, Terrain Stick, Drop Stick, Display Clock and Speed/Heading Indicator.

4.      Weather.

 

Utilization of these overlays are controller orientated and depend entirely on the personal preferences of the operator.

 

The “MAP OVERLAYS” section also offers several other control capabilities:

1.      Grids”. Selection brings up the “MAP GRID DEFINITION” form.

Fig. “Grids”

VII. Interaction between FORCES and RAP controls.

 

A. When in RAP mode and wish to go to FORCES:

 

Select “FORCES & Live Feeds”.

 

Three options appear:

Fig. Start or Connect to FORCES Options

 

1.      Start Local FORCES & Live Feeds”.

 

Allows operator to connect to local FORCES and live feeds. Selection causes “CONNECT TO CCS” menu to appear.

 

Fig. Connect to CCS Site Options

 

2.      Start FORCES Scenario”.

 

Allows operator to choose and start a FORCS scenario. Selection causes “START SCENARIO” menu to appear where FORCES scenario may be chosen.

 

Fig. Choose and Run FORCES Scenario.

 

3. “Connect to Ongoing FORCES Scenario”.

Allows operator to connect to an ongoing FORCES scenario. Selection causes “Connect to Scenario” menu to appear where the ongoing FORCES scenario may be chosen.

Fig. Connect to Options

 

B. Once a FORCES selection is made and the operator wishes to return to the RAP controls the “Change to RAP Interface” option on the FORCES Master Menu is selected.

 

Fig. Change to RAP Interface

 

The RAP master menu then reappears.

 

C. When in the RAP mode and it is necessary to return to the FORCES control menu, the operator selects the “Change to FORCES Controls” causing the FORCES Master Menu to reappear.

 

Fig. Change to FORCES Controls

 

VIII. Instructions on how to Utilize RAP in the Performance of Range Control Functions and Tasks. TBD.

 

Fig. Speed/Heading Scale

 

 

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